关中涝池恶化水质影响因素及其防治技术初步探究
苏媛
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高照良
2020-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral陕西杨陵
Degree Name农学硕士
Degree Discipline水土保持与荒漠化防治
Keyword涝池 水体黑臭 生态浮床 斜板沉沙池 过氧化钙试剂
Abstract

涝池是北方干旱地区农村低洼地处蓄积雨水的一项水土保持工程,在发挥其固沟保塬等水土保持效能的同时,也能为所在区域提供稀缺的湿地景观。20世纪90年代,由于各项集雨工程的兴起,限制了其传统功能的发挥,削弱了涝池的存在价值,再加上其水体封闭、水位较浅和面积较小,管理上的缺失和外来污染物的侵入,致使其水体自净能力降低,现存涝池大多数出现了严重的水体富营养化甚至被废弃的现象。2016年以来,陕西省水利厅将农村涝池水生态修复与整治纳入全省“十三五”水土保持规划,但新建与整治涝池依然在一定程度上出现了水体黑臭反复的现象。据调查,位于关中地区的杨凌示范区周边地区新建和修复的涝池水体黑臭率已达46%,这些现象既制约着农村社会发展,又致使农村水生态环境不断恶化。因此,从根本上了解涝池水体恶化的原因和其变化规律,因地制宜采取相应措施开展修复整治工作,迫在眉睫。

本研究针对涝池整治修复过程中及先前存在的水体黑臭问题,以杨凌区周边具有典型代表性的涝池为研究对象,基于已有的关于污染水体的评价、分析和修复的研究成果,在明晰涝池建造类型和污染源头的基础上,分析其可能导致水质恶化的因素,研究了不同类型的净化措施,主要结论如下:

1)调查研究表明,研究区涝池水体水质均为地表水劣V类,污染程度不一,污染物主要以氮类化合物为主,污染物来源主要包括生活污水、养殖场废水、不同下垫面地表径流汇流,实施涝池池底防渗以及配置污水处理设施对于改善涝池水环境状况较为重要,此外辅以内源水体的相关修复及管护措施,水体改善效果将会更好。

2)试验条件下,斜板能显著减少泥沙中的悬浮物,当放水流量较小(放水流量为25L/min时,沉沙池长度为1m),斜管沉沙池和普通沉沙池沉沙效率并无明显差异,且随着池长的增加也无明显变化;当放水流量较大时(放水流量为95L/min160L/min),斜板沉沙池在不同池长条件下沉沙效率总体高于普通沉沙池;斜管沉沙池较普通沉沙池在高含沙水流中对不同池长、不同放水流量下大于0.01mm的粗颗粒去除效果好,斜板沉沙池特殊的结构和放置方式,一定程度上降低了水流流速,能有效将粗颗粒和悬浮物沉积在沉沙池内。

3)美人蕉、水菖蒲、西伯利亚鸢尾对水体中总氮均表现出较好的净化效果,平均去除率高达56.37%,对NH3-N平均去除率高达73.87%,美人蕉组和水菖蒲组去除NH3-N的主要途径为氨的挥发、根系吸收和硝化反应,西伯利亚鸢尾组NH3-N的主要去除途径是氨的挥发和硝化反应,而对照组NH3-N去除率高达60.55%的主要原因是氨的挥发;3种植物浮床组中NO3-–N 浓度变化主要与各试验组中水体的硝化反应程度及植物吸收效率的差异性有关。美人蕉组和水菖蒲组对2种污染源水体中TP的去除效率分别为55.42%58.32%,去除效率远大于对照组(15.57%),而西伯利亚鸢尾组在试验结束时水体TP浓度与对照组无显著差异。3种植物中,水菖蒲适用于点源和面源污染类型水体的净化,美人蕉因根系发达在重度污染水体中腐烂产生二次污染,不适宜点源污染源污染水体的净化,西伯利亚鸢尾在两种污染源水体中因生长适应性差,不适宜作为修复涝池污染水体的浮床植物推广。

4)不同投加浓度的化学试剂对水体污染物及其他要素有不同程度的影响,对氧化钙来说,其对水体中总磷的去除的原理和过氧化钙基本相同,唯一不同的是,过氧化钙是强氧化剂,它与水反应产生氧气,能够提高水体中溶解氧的含量,有改变水体微环境,增强好氧微生物活性,促进水体硝化反应的效能,因此,在一定浓度范围内,具有强氧化性的过氧化钙对污染物去除效率高于氧化钙,而且其净水效益超过氧化钙,单价仅为20RMB/kg左右。

关键词:涝池;水体黑臭;生态浮床;斜板沉沙池;过氧化钙试剂

Other Abstract

The waterstorage pond is a soil and water conservation project that accumulates rainwater in low-lying rural areas in northern arid regions. While exerting its soil and water conservation efficiencies such as the gully protection plateau, it can also provide scarce wetland landscapes for the area. In the 1990s, due to the rise of various rainwater harvesting projects, their traditional functions were limited, and the existence value of the waterstorage ponds was weakened. In addition to the closed water bodies, shallow water levels and small areas, the lack of management and The intrusion of foreign pollutants reduced the self-purification capacity of the water body, and most of the existing waterstorage ponds had serious water eutrophication and even been abandoned. Since 2016, the Shaanxi Provincial Department of Water Resources has included the ecological restoration and remediation of rural waterstorage ponds into the province ’s “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” for soil and water conservation. However, the new and renovating waterstorage ponds have repeatedly experienced black and odorous water bodies. According to the survey, the black and odor rate of newly built and renovated water bodies of the waterstorage ponds in the surrounding area of Yangling Demonstration Zone in Guanzhong area has reached 46%. These phenomena not only restrict the development of rural society, but also cause the rural water ecological environment to deteriorate continuously. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the causes of the deterioration of the water body of the waterstorage pond and its changing rules fundamentally, and take corresponding measures to carry out the restoration and remediation work according to local conditions.

This study aims at the black and odor problem of water bodies during the renovation and restoration of waterstorage ponds in Guanzhong area, taking the typical representative waterstorage ponds around Yangling District as the research object, based on the existing research on the evaluation, analysis and restoration of polluted water bodies The results, on the basis of clarifying the types of waterstorage pond construction and pollution sources, analyzed the different factors that may cause the deterioration of water quality, and studied different types of purification measures. The main conclusions are as follows:

(1) Investigations and studies have shown that the water quality of the waterstorage ponds in the study area is inferior to surface water, with varying degrees of pollution. The pollutants are mainly nitrogen compounds. The sources of pollutants mainly include domestic sewage, farm wastewater, and different The confluence of surface runoff on the mat surface, the implementation of anti-seepage at the bottom of the waterstorage pond, and the configuration of sewage treatment facilities are more important for improving the water environment of the waterstorage pond. In addition, with the related restoration and management measures of the internal water body, the improvement effect of the water body will be better.

(2) Under the test conditions, the inclined plate can significantly reduce the suspended matter in the sediment. When the discharge flow is small (the discharge flow is 25L/min, the length of the sedimentation tank is 1m), the inclined tube sedimentation tank and the ordinary sedimentation There is no obvious difference in the sedimentation efficiency of the pool, and there is no significant change with the increase of the length of the pool; when the discharge flow is large (the discharge flow is 95L/min and 160L/min), the inclined plate sedimentation tank is in different pool length conditions The efficiency of sinking sand is generally higher than that of ordinary sand sink; inclined pipe sand sink is better than ordinary sand sink in removing coarse particles larger than 0.01mm in different pool lengths and different discharge flows in high sand flow, and the inclined plate sinks The special structure and placement method of the sand pond have reduced the water flow rate to a certain extent, and can effectively deposit coarse particles and suspended matter in the sand pond.

(3) The three plants showed a good purification effect on the total nitrogen in the water body, the average removal rate was as high as 56.37%, and the average removal rate for NH3-N was as high as 73.87%. The main removal of NH3-N by the Canna and Acorus group The pathways including ammonia volatilization, root absorption and nitrification. The main removal route of NH3-N in the Siberian iris group is ammonia volatilization and nitrification. The main reason for the removal rate of NH3-N in the control group up to 60.55% is ammonia volatilization; The variation of NO3-–N concentration in the plant-floating bed group is mainly related to the difference in the degree of nitrification reaction of the water bodies and the absorption efficiency of plants in each test group. The removal efficiency of TP in the water bodies of the two pollutant sources by the canna group and the water calamus group was 55.42% and 58.32%, respectively. The removal efficiency was much greater than that of the control group (15.57%), while the TP concentration of the Siberian iris group at the end of the experiment was not Significant differences. Among the plants, Acorus calamus is suitable for the purification of water sources of point source and non-point source pollution. The canna root rots in the heavily polluted water body due to the developed root system to produce secondary pollution. It is not suitable for the purification of water source polluted by point source pollution. Poor growth adaptability in the water source of the pollution source is not suitable for promotion as a floating bed plant for remediation of polluted water in the waterstorage pond.

(4) Chemical reagents with different concentrations have different effects on water pollutants and other elements. For calcium oxide, the principle of removing total phosphorus in water is basically the same as calcium peroxide, the only difference is Calcium peroxide is a strong oxidant. It reacts with water to produce oxygen, which can increase the dissolved oxygen content in the water body. It has the effect of changing the microenvironment of the water body, enhancing the aerobic microbial activity, and promoting the nitrification reaction of the water body. Therefore, within a certain concentration range The removal efficiency of pollutants with strong oxidizing calcium peroxide is higher than that of calcium oxide, and its water purification benefit exceeds calcium oxide, and the unit price is only about 20RMB/kg.

Keywords: waterstorage pond; black and smelly water body; ecological floating bed; inclined plate sedimentation pond; calcium peroxide reagent.

Subject Area农学
MOST Discipline Catalogue农学
Table of Contents

... I

... III

ABSTRACT.. V

第一章 绪论... 1

1.1 研究背景... 1

1.2 研究目的和意义... 2

1.3 国内外研究现状与进展... 2

1.3.1 农村涝池雨水调蓄利用现状... 2

1.3.2 农村雨水调蓄工程水质影响因素... 3

1.3.3 黑臭水体水质改良技术研究进展... 6

1.4 存在问题与不足... 9

第二章 研究内容与试验设计... 10

2.1 研究内容... 10

2.1.1 涝池黑臭水体影响因子揭示... 10

2.1.2 不同结构类型沉沙池沉沙效率实验研究... 10

2.1.3 三种植物对不同污染源涝池水体净化效率研究... 11

2.1.4 两种化学试剂对重度污染源涝池水体净化效率研究... 11

2.2 试验设计... 11

2.2.1 野外调查... 11

2.2.2室外模拟试验... 13

2.3 技术路线... 20

第三章 涝池水体污染物特征及水质现状调查与分析... 22

3.1 调查点涝池基本特征及防护形式... 22

3.2 涝池水体污染物浓度统计分析... 23

3.3 基于水质标准指数法的涝池水体水质评价... 25

3.4 讨论... 26

3.5 本章小结... 27

第四章 不同结构类型沉沙池沉沙效率试验研究... 28

4.1 不同布置形式的沉沙池沉沙效率... 28

4.2 不同长度沉沙池沉沙效率... 29

4.3 不同布置形式下的沉沙池沉积泥沙粒径的分选规律... 30

4.4 本章小结... 31

第五章 三种植物对不同污染源涝池水体净化效率研究... 33

5.1 植物生长状况... 33

5.2 水体pHDO状况... 34

5.3 水体中总氮及总磷浓度变化... 35

5.4 水体中硝态氮和氨氮浓度变化... 37

5.5 讨论... 39

5.6 本章小结... 40

第六章 两种化学试剂对重度污染源涝池水体净化效率研究... 42

6.1 不同化学试剂处理重度污染涝池水体表观现象变化... 42

6.2 水体pHDO状况... 44

6.3 水体中总磷浓度变化... 45

6.4 水体中氨氮浓度变化... 46

6.5 本章小结... 47

第七章 主要结论... 49

7.1 主要结论... 49

7.2 存在不足及展望... 50

参考文献... 52

作者简历及攻读学位期间发表的学术论文与研究成果 58

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9214
Collection水保所2018--2020届毕业生论文(学位论文、期刊论文)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
苏媛. 关中涝池恶化水质影响因素及其防治技术初步探究[D]. 陕西杨陵. 中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心,2020.
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