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基于 SWAT 模型的延河流域土地利用对 径流影响模拟研究
赵传普
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor徐学选
2015-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword延河流域 土地利用变化 Swat 模型 径流模拟 基流
Abstract

本文以黄土高原典型流域——延河流域作为研究区,建立 SWAT 水文模型基础数
据库及确定其适用参数,并对流域多年月径流量进行模拟验证。在此基础上,研究了
流域土地利用对径流的影响。主要研究成果如下:
1)构建了延河流域 SWAT 水文模型基础数据库。收集并处理模型运行所需流域
基础资料,主要包括 DEM 数据、土地利用数据、土壤数据、气象数据、河流水文数
据,建立模型运行所需数据库。
2)确立了适用于延河流域的 SWAT 模型输入参数值。采用数字滤波法分割基流
量,确定基流指数。在此基础上,运用 SWAT-CUP 进行模型参数率定及验证,确定
了 14 个径流模拟敏感参数适用值。对径流模拟结果影响最大的前 5 个参数分别为:
CN2、SOL_BD、SOL_K、ALPHA_BNK、GWQMN。
3)评价了 SWAT 模型在延河流域的适用性。本文选择甘谷驿水文站 1982-1988
年实测月均径流量对模型参数率定,参数率定期决定系数 R 2 =0.74 且纳什效率系数
NS=0.69;采用 1991-1996 年实测月均流量进行参数验证,验证期决定系数 R 2 =0.79
且纳什效率系数 NS=0.72,符合模型评价标准。但是,在验证期峰值流量模拟效果欠
佳。
4)土地利用对径流影响分析表明:相同气象条件下,植被恢复等生态治理措施
对流域产流有较大影响,导致径流量及基流量减少,基流指数增大。研究发现相同气
象条件下,1985 年土地利用情景下的年均地表径流量为 30.26 mm,其中基流量为
14.60 mm,基流指数为 0.48;2010 年土地利用情景下的年均地表径流量为 24.03 mm,
年均基流量为 12.78 mm,基流指数为 0.53。1985 年土地利用情景下甘谷驿水文站年
均河道径流量模拟值为 5.21 m 3 /s,2010 年土地利用情景下为 4.47 m 3 /s,比 1985 年减
少 0.74 m 3 /s,减幅为-14.2%。
关键词:延河流域;土地利用变化;SWAT 模型;径流模拟;基流

Other Abstract

This paper selects the typical watershed in loess plateau – Yan river watershed as the
study area .The basic database and parameter system of SWAT model are constructed to
simulate and validate the monthly runoff in the Yan river watershed. Then we studied the
runoff response to land use change in the watershed. The main conclusions of the study are
as follows:
1) The basic database of SWAT model is constructed. The basic data of the Yan river
watershed are collected and processed, including DEM data, the land use data, soil data,
meteorological data and the other data SWAT model needed.
2)The SWAT model’s input parameters and its applicable value were determined.
Digital filtering method is used to calculate the base flow index, then the SWAT-CUP is
selected to calibrate and validate the input parameters, the values of 14 sensitive
parameters are determined. The five parameters which have great influence on the runoff
simulation results are: CN2 (Runoff curve number), SOL_BD (Moist bulk density),
SOL_K (Saturated hydraulic conductivity), ALPHA_BNK (Base flow alpha factor for
bank storage), GWQMN (Threshold depth of water in the shallow aquifer required for
return flow to occur).
3) To evaluate the applicability of the SWAT model in Yan river watershed. The
monthly runoff data of the Ganguyi hydrological station from 1982 to 1988 are used for
model calibration. In the calibration period, R 2 =0.74 and NS=0.69. The monthly data from
1991 to 1996 are used for model validation. In the validation period, R 2 =0.79 and NS=0.72.
The results can meet the evaluation criteria, but in the validation period simulation values
are lower than the measured values in the month with larger runoff.
4) Analysis of hydrological response to land use change show that vegetation
restoration has greate influence on stream flow, which reduces the runoff. The annual  surface runoff is 30.26 mm , the annual base flow is 14.60 mm and the base flow index is
0.48 under the land use situation in 1985; The annual surface runoff is 24.03 mm , the
annual base flow is 12.87 mm and the base flow index is 0.53 under the land use situation
in 2010. The annual simulation value of stream flow is 5.21 m 3 / s at the Ganguyi
hydrological station under the land use situation in 1985. The annual simulation value of
stream flow is 4.47 m 3 / s at the Ganguyi hydrological station under the land use situation
in 2010, which decreased by 0.74 m 3 / s, the rate of change is -14.2%.
Key Words: : Yan river watershed; Land use change; SWAT model; Runoff simulation;
Base flow

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9038
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵传普. 基于 SWAT 模型的延河流域土地利用对 径流影响模拟研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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