ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
极端暴雨条件下典型梯田侵蚀特征及防蚀效果
白先发
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高建恩
2015-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword梯田 水沙调控 土壤侵蚀 极端暴雨 防蚀措施
Abstract

With the implementation of the policy of converting slope farmland into forest
and grassland, there is an increasing conflict between food security, water security,
and cultivated land resources, so it is quite popular to develop terrace highly efficient
agriculture in loess hilly and gully region. So far, the ways of terrace highly efficient
agriculture mainly contain terrace-field, terrace-greenhouse, terrace-orchard, plain
field agriculture etc. Owing to the impacts of global climate change,the contradiction
between aridity and erosion in loess hilly and gully region become worse,the
frequency of extreme weather and climate events especially extreme rainfall become
intensive,and soil erosion have new feature. As an important way of controlling soil
and water loss and developing agriculture, terraces are always highly efficient, but
terraces also change the underlying surface. Under the change of runoff producing
precipitation and confluence and extreme rainstorm, terraces are often seriously
damaged. Based on the extreme rainfall happened in Ansai county Yan’an city in 2013,
this study monitored the soil and water erosion condition of typical terraces in loess
hilly and gully region, analyzing the erosion law and influence factors of terraces, and
puts forward terraces erosion controlling suggestions. The main conclusions are listed
as follows:
1.The characters analysis of extreme precipitation under the condition of
climate change in the study area. The annual average rainfall is 505.3 mm, but there
was an extreme rainstorm in 2013 in study area, which not occur even in a hundred
years. Based on analyzing the meteorological data from China meteorological and
scientific data sharing net and Ansai weather bureau, the results showed that the
maximum 10-minute rainfall intensity was a 1-year rainstorm recurrence, the  maximum 20-minute rainfall intensity was a 2-year rainstorm recurrence, the
maximum 30-minute and 60minute rainfall intensity were both 5-year rainstorm
recurrence, the maximum 3-hour and 6-hour rainfall intensity were both 20-year
rainstorm recurrence, the maximum 1-day rainfall intensity was a 14-year rainstorm
recurrence, the maximum 1-month rainfall intensity was a 10000-year rainstorm
recurrence, whole-year rainfall intensity was a 500-year rainstorm recurrence in 2013.
The 2013 rainfall has the feature of low rainfall intensity, but long rainfall duration
and high frequency. The 2014 rainfall in rainy period in study area was 372.5 mm,
with erosive rainfall accounting for 80% of whole rainfall. The results indicated that
under the condition of climate change, the events of extreme rainstorm was increasing,
which had a serious threat to the development of terrace highly efficient agriculture.
2.There was a big difference of runoff and sediment regulation effect from
different ways of terrace highly efficient agriculture under extreme rainstorm.
Under extreme rainstorm from June to August in 2013, due to the fact of lacking
runoff and sediment regulation measures and confluence of runoff from the top to the
bottom of multilevel terraces, the terrace-field was seriously erosive, with the average
soil erosion modulus being 23 921 t/km 2 ; after planting apple trees and building water
cellar on terrace-field, under the regulation of water cellar and crops, the average soil
erosion modulus of terrace-orchard was 2177 t/km 2 , decreased soil erosion modulus
of 21 744 t/km 2 compared with terrace-field; after building greenhouse on terraces,
because of the high efficiency of rainwater collection on the surface of greenhouse,
the average soil erosion modulus of terrace- greenhouse was 18269 t/km 2 , decreased
soil erosion modulus of 6525 t/km 2 compared with terrace-field. By building runoff
and sediment regulation systems on terrace-greenhouse in 2014, rainfall runoff from
greenhouse was intercepted and keeped in water cellar, what’s more, the motive
power of soil erosion was removed. So there was only slight surface erosion on it,
with anticorrosion effect was 100%.
3.The erosion feature of typical terraces under extreme rainstorm. The
erosion level of terrace-orchard were middle degree erosion. From the top to the
bottom, the erosion level of terrace-field changed from light erosion,middle degree
erosion, serious erosion, very intensive erosion to violent erosion,with the area of  very intensive erosion accouting to 64.26% of whole area. The rainfall runoff from
greenhouse surface occupy 84% to 92% of total rainfall runoff, which had an
decisive role in soil erosion. The erosion level of terrace-greenhouse of every terrace
was very intensive erosion.
4.The suggestion of terraces erosion control. The series of terrace-field should
not be over 5, and it’s better to build perfect erosion control measures, such as
complete and strong bund, no bare land, building backslope terrace if conditions are
allowed. When the series of terrace-field are over 5, it’s better to build runoff and
sediment regulation measures such as discharge canal and water cellar. After building
runoff and sediment regulation measures on terrace-greenhouse, the outside area of
greenhouse should be made most of such as planting switchgrass to filter surface
runoff, and drip irrigation systems should be installed inside of greenhouse. The rate
of greenhouse surface to terrace area should be 0.4 to 0.5. As far as terrace-orchard is
concerned, runoff-collecting surface and water cellar should be checked and
maintained termly, and bunds should be dressed before rainy season comes. The litter
and altar weeds are not suggested to be removed. In conclusion, under the condition
of climate change, the design criterion of terraces should be improved.
Key words: terrace; runoff and sediment regulation; soil erosion; extreme rainstorm;
erosion control measures

Other Abstract

随着黄土高原退耕还林还草政策的实施,粮食安全、水安全与耕地资源紧张
矛盾问题突出,黄土丘陵沟壑区发展梯田高效农业成为必然选择。目前,黄土丘
陵沟壑区梯田高效农业主要形式有梯田大田、梯田大棚、梯田果园、川地农业等,
由于全球气候变化影响,黄土高原干旱与水土流失矛盾进一步突出,极端天气、
气候事件特别是极端降雨频繁发生,土壤侵蚀出现新的特征。梯田作为防治水土
流失、发展农业的重要形式,在赋予梯田高效农业的同时导致梯田下垫面改变,
在产汇流条件变化和极端暴雨双重作用下,梯田侵蚀灾害严重。本研究主要在
2013 年延安安塞地区发生的极端暴雨条件下,对黄土丘陵沟壑区典型高效农业
梯田水土流失状况进行监测,分析梯田侵蚀规律及侵蚀影响因素,在此基础上提
出了梯田防蚀技术建议,取得主要成果如下:
1. 气候变化背景下研究区的极端暴雨特性分析。研究区多年平均降雨为
505.3 mm,而 2013 年研究区出现了极端降雨,百年未遇,基于中国气象科学数
据共享网和安塞县气象局降雨资料分析结果表明,2013 年研究区最大 10 min 雨
强为 1 年一遇暴雨,最大 20 min 雨强为 2 年一遇暴雨,最大 30 min 和 60 min 雨
强均为 5 年一遇暴雨,最大 3 h 和 6 h 雨强均为 20 年一遇暴雨,最大日降雨属于
14 年一遇暴雨,最大月降雨属于 10 000 年一遇暴雨,2013 年总降水量属于 500
年一遇标准。2013 年 6~9 月降雨特点为雨期降雨强度相对低但历时长、频率高。
研究区 2014 年雨期降雨为 372.5mm,主要以长历时的侵蚀性降雨为主,侵蚀性
降雨达到总降雨量的 80%左右。上述结果表明,气候变化背景下研究区极端暴雨
事件突显,严重威胁梯田高效农业的发展。
2.。 极端暴雨条件下不同梯田高效农业形式的水沙调控效果差异较大。在 2013
年 6~9 月极端暴雨条件下,由于梯田大田缺乏水沙调控措施,径流由顶部向底部
汇集,导致侵蚀异常严重,平均土壤侵蚀模数为 23 921 t/km 2 ;在梯田上种植苹
果树修建水窖以后,在水窖、地表作物等因素的调控下,平均土壤侵蚀模数为 2
177 t/km 2 ,较梯田大田减少侵蚀模数 21 744 t/km 2 ;在梯田上修建大棚以后,由
于大棚棚面集流系数高,平均每一级梯田侵蚀模数为 18 269 t/km 2 ,较梯田大田减少侵蚀模数 5 625 t/km 2 。2014 年通过在梯田大棚上修建水沙调控系统后,棚
面降雨径流被拦截贮存起来,土壤侵蚀的原动力被消除,仅发生轻微面蚀,防蚀
效果达 100%。
3. 极端暴雨条件下典型梯田侵蚀特点分析。梯田水窖苹果地土壤侵蚀等级都
在中度侵蚀以下,侵蚀较轻。梯田大田由顶部到底部轻度侵蚀、中度侵蚀、强度
侵蚀、极强度侵蚀、剧烈侵蚀等各种土壤侵蚀等级都存在,其中极强度侵蚀以上
的梯田面积占总面积的 64.26%。梯田大棚大棚棚面径流量占总径流量的
84%~92%,其对梯田侵蚀具有决定性作用,大棚棚面径流量与侵蚀量成对数关
系,每一级梯田侵蚀等级都在极强度侵蚀以上。
4.。 梯田防蚀措施建议。梯田大田应控制在5级以内,各种防蚀措施应该完善,
如田埂修建完整、结实,田内严禁裸地,有条件地方可修建反坡梯田;当梯田级
数超过 5 级时,应该因地制宜修建排水渠道、水窖等径流调控设施。梯田大棚修
建集流系统后应该对大棚外侧土地合理利用如种植柳枝稷过滤地表径流,棚内安
装滴灌系统等;大棚棚面面积与梯田面积之比应该控制在 0.4~0.5 之间。对于梯
田水窖苹果地建议定期对集流面和水窖运行情况进行检查、维护,雨季应及时对
梯田田埂进行修整,不建议对梯田内的枯枝落叶和梯壁杂草进行清理。综上所述,
在气候变化条件下,极端暴雨事件突显,梯田设计标准应提高。
关键词:梯田;水沙调控;土壤侵蚀;极端暴雨;防蚀措施

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9035
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
白先发. 极端暴雨条件下典型梯田侵蚀特征及防蚀效果[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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