ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
生产建设项目依坡倾倒 堆积体 侵蚀产沙 特征 研究
丁亚东
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor谢永生
2015-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword依坡倾倒堆积体 砾石含量 上坡来水 人工模拟降雨 径流产沙 预 测模型
Abstract

依坡倾倒堆积体是生产建设项目过程中产生的一类常见的堆积体类型,一般
存在于铁路、公路建设中的隧道开挖、山区开发建设项目实施过程中,产生的弃
土弃渣沿着山坡坡面或沟道直接倾倒而下。该类型堆积体具有边坡陡峭、覆盖物
松散、地表组成物质复杂等特点,相对于原地貌条件下,非常容易导致水土流失
及地质灾害。野外常见的依坡倾倒堆积体分为两类:一、坡沟依坡堆积体,该类
堆积体弃土弃渣量大,一般直接堆积在沟道和坡面,土层较厚;二、坡面依坡堆
积体,该类型堆积体弃土弃渣量相对较小,由坡上部倾倒而下,弃土弃渣堆积在
坡面上,形成“上厚下薄”的堆积形态。本文以野外实际状况下存在的两类依坡倾
倒堆积体为研究对象,采用室内模拟降雨与模拟上坡来水的方法,对不同砾石含
量、不同坡度的依坡倾倒堆积体下垫面展开研究,同时探索该类型堆积体水土流
失测算模型,以期为建立生产建设项目水土流失测算模型提供科学依据。得出以
下主要结论:
形态一:坡沟依坡堆积体研究结论
(1)坡沟依坡堆积体产流时间与上部汇流量、砾石含量、坡度的关系:产
流时间与上部汇流量的大小呈极显著负相关关系,随着上部汇流量的增大,产流
时间缩短;随着砾石含量的增大,产流时间呈增大的趋势;随着坡度的增大,产
流时间呈减小趋势。
(2)坡沟依坡堆积体径流率与上部汇水量、砾石含量、坡度的关系:在产
流后的 54 min 内,相同砾石含量条件下,平均径流率与上部汇水量呈极显著正
相关关系,平均径流率随砾石含量的增大呈减小趋势,随坡度的增大呈增大趋势。
(3)坡沟依坡堆积体径流率随时间的变化关系:在产流后的 54 min 内,径
流率随着上部汇水量的增大而增大;随着沟蚀的发育,侵蚀沟边缘土体不断地发
生坍塌,阻碍径流向坡下部输移,使得径流率不断地上下波动;上部汇水量越大,
沟蚀发育过程速度加快,导致径流率的波动幅度增加;随着时间的延长,堆积体
产生的径流率不断地增大,并最终趋于稳定。(4)坡沟依坡堆积体侵蚀速率与上部汇水量、砾石含量、坡度的关系:坡
沟依坡堆积体侵蚀速率与上部汇水流量呈极显著幂函数关系;随着砾石含量的增
大,侵蚀速率呈减小的趋势;随着坡度的增大,侵蚀速率呈增大的趋势。
(5)在上部汇水量为 10 L/min、砾石含量为 60 %、坡度为 30°因素组合条
件下,平均侵蚀速率显著大于该砾石条件下其他因素组合,随着砾石含量、坡度
的增加,坡沟依坡堆积体混合侵蚀加剧,以此推测,砾石含量 60 %、坡度 30°、
汇水量 10 L/min 是发生混合侵蚀的临界条件。
(6)坡沟依坡堆积体单位面积侵蚀量预测模型:A=1.194Q 1.612  (S/25°) 0.977  
(0.908 -0.256D i )。
形态二:坡面依坡堆积体研究结论
(7)坡面依坡堆积体产流时间与雨强、砾石含量、坡度的关系:坡面依坡
堆积体产流时间与雨强有显著的负相关关系;产流时间随砾石含量的增加呈增大
的趋势。
(8)坡面依坡堆积体径流率与雨强呈极显著线性关系;随着降雨时间的延
续,径流率呈先增大后趋于稳定的状态,2.5 mm/min 雨强条件下径流率波动明
显;砾石含量越大,径流率波动幅度越小。
(9)坡面依坡堆积体平均侵蚀速率的与砾石含量显著相关;侵蚀速率与雨
强显著相关;随着坡度的增加,侵蚀速率有增大的趋势;侵蚀速率的大小主要受
降雨强度的支配;雨强越大侵蚀速率波动越明显。相同砾石含量条件下,平均侵
蚀速率与雨强呈显著的幂函数关系。
(10)坡面依坡堆积体侵蚀模数与砾石含量呈显著的线性关系,与雨强呈显
著的幂函数关系,坡面依坡堆积体单位面积侵蚀量测算模型为: A=0.0662P 1.6266 
(1.543-1.895D i )  (S/25°) 1.352 。
关键词:依坡倾倒堆积体,砾石含量,上坡来水,人工模拟降雨,径流产沙,预
测模型

Other Abstract

The dumped along the slope spoilbank is a common type of accumulation type of
production and construction projects. It generally exists in the tunnel excavation of
railway and highway construction, mountain development projects implement. Dregs
dumped down along the hillside slope surface or the ditch. Accumulation of this type
has characteristics of steep slope, loose cover, and complex composition of the
material surface. It easily lead to soil erosion and geological disasters compared to the
original geomorphological conditions. Common field stacked body according to the
slope poured divided into two categories: 1. Slope gully stacked body, such stacked
bodies has large amount of dregs, it is usually directly dumped on the slope gully whit
thick layer. 2. Slope stacked body, this kind of stacked body has relatively small
amount of dregs, it is dumped down from the top of a slope and forms a stack shape
which top is thick and toe is thin. In this paper, two types of stacked body, which exist
in the field, were set as our study objects. And we used indoor simulated rainfall and
simulated upper buss method to study stacked bodies with different gravel contents or
different gradients, and we explored the soil erosion accumulating calculation model
about these types of stacked bodies, hoping to provide a scientific basis for the
establishment of production and construction projects of soil erosion calculation
model. Draw the following conclusions:
Form one: Research conclusions for slope gully dumped stack body
(1) Relationship between runoff producing time of slope gully dumped stack
body and the upper part runoff amount, gravel content, the slope: runoff producing
time and upper part runoff amount was significant negative correlated. With the
increasing of the upper part runoff amount, runoff producing time is shortened; With
the increasing content of gravel, runoff producing time showed an increasing trend;
With the increasing of slope, runoff producing time showed a decreasing trend.
(2) Relationship between runoff rate of slope gully dumped stack body and the
upper part runoff amount, gravel content, the slope: Within 54 min after the runoff
exist, under the same gravel content conditions, the average runoff rate and the upper
part runoff amount was significant positive correlated. the average runoff rate
decreased with increasing of gravel content, and increased with the increasing of
slope.
(3) Relationship between runoff rate of slope gully dumped stack body and time: Within 54 min after the runoff exist, runoff rate increased with the increase of upper
part runoff amount. With the development of gully erosion, edge erosion gully
collapse constantly. This hindered runoff transport to the lower slope and made
constant runoff rate fluctuations. The larger upper part runoff amount, the faster gully
erosion developed, and resulted in larger runoff rate fluctuation range. With time
extended, runoff rate of stacked body increased and tend to be stable at last.
(4) Relationship between erosion rate of slope gully dumped stack body and the
upper part runoff amount, gravel content, the slope: Erosion rate of slope gully
dumped stack body was significant power function with upper part runoff amount.
With the increase of gravel content, the erosion rate showed a decreasing trend. And
with the slope increased erosion rate showed an increasing trend
(5) Under the situation that the upper part runoff amount was 10 L/min, gravel
content was 60%, slope was 30°, the average erosion rate was significantly larger than
that of other combination of factors under the same gravel content condition. With
increase of gravel content and the slope, mixed erosion of slope gully dumped stack
body increased, as speculated, 60% of gravel content, 30° of slope, 10 L/min of the
runoff amount was the critical value when mixed erosion appeared.
(6) The erosion amount calculation model in per unit area is: A=1.194Q1.612
(S/25°)0.977  (0.908 -0.256D i )。
Form two: Research conclusions for slope dumped stack body
(7) Relationship between runoff producing time of slope dumped stack body and
the rainfall intensity, gravel content, the slope: runoff producing time of slope dumped
stack body is significant negative correlated with the rainfall intensity. And runoff
producing time shows an increasing trend with gravel content increasing.
(8) The runoff rate of slope dumped stack body has significant linear relationship
with rainfall intensity. With the continuation of rainfall time, the runoff rate shows an
increasing trend and then tends to be stable. At 2.5 mm / min rain intensity conditions,
runoff rate fluctuates significantly. The lager gravel content, he smaller runoff rate
fluctuations.
(9) The erosion rate of slope dumped stack body is significantly associated with
both gravel content and rainfall intensity. The erosion rate is mainly dominated by the
rainfall intensity. The stronger rain, the larger fluctuate range of erosion rate. Under
the same conditions gravel content, There is a significant power function relationship
between the average erosion rate and rainfall intensity.
(10) There is a significant linear function relationship between erosion modulus
of slope dumped stack body and gravel content. And there is a significant power
function relationship between erosion modulus of slope dumped stack body and
rainfall intensity. The erosion amount calculation model in per unit area is:
A=0.0662P 1.6266  (1.543-1.895D i )  (S/25°) 1.352 。
Keywords: stack-dumping, Gravel content, Runoff from upper slope, Artificial
simulation of rainfall, Runoff and sediment, Prediction model 

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9030
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
丁亚东. 生产建设项目依坡倾倒 堆积体 侵蚀产沙 特征 研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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