ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
北洛河上游次洪水沙过程对生态恢复的响应研究
蔺鹏飞
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张晓萍
2015-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生态恢复 水沙关系 次洪水 响应规律 黄土高原
Abstract

滥砍滥伐和陡坡开垦等不合理的土地利用,使得黄土高原地区生态环境恶化,侵蚀
加剧。1999 年政策性的退耕还林(草)工程实施以来,生态环境得以显著改善。本文选
择退耕还林(草)工程实施效果非常显著的陕北吴起县所在北洛河上游为研究区,基于
吴旗水文站(1963-2011 年)实测日径流、输沙和次洪水径流、输沙数据,以及相应时
期的降雨资料,利用水文统计法,探讨了黄土丘陵沟壑区流域径流、输沙等行为对水土
保持综合治理,尤其对大规模植被恢复的响应规律,为黄土高原水土保持规划、生态建
设和水沙资源管理等提供必要的理论和实践依据。本研究取得的主要结论如下:
(1)近 50 年来,流域年径流、输沙量均表现出极显著减少趋势,年均变率分别为
-0.32 mm·a -1 、-228.91 t·km -2 ·a -1 。与基准期(1963-1979 年)相比,流域丰、平水期径流
和输沙量,在水土保持综合治理效应期(水保期,1980-2002 年)和退耕还林(草)生
态显著恢复期(生态恢复期,2002-2011 年),呈逐阶段减少趋势。生态恢复期相应发生
概率下的径流量分别减少了 54.6%、27.01%,输沙量则减少程度更大,分别为 96.71%、
90.42%。枯水期基流量则增加了 157.65%,输沙量消失。
(2)与基准期比,水保期年尺度线性水沙关系统计上无显著差异,而与生态恢复
期差异显著。月尺度径流-含沙量关系分析表明,含沙量/径流量比值(C/Q)呈逐阶段降
低趋势,尤其在生态恢复期,6-8 月 C/Q 值减少幅度范围达到 50-81%。生态恢复期日均
含沙量>300 kg·m -3 的高和极高含沙量的洪水事件发生频率下降了约 82%,<300 kg·m -3
的低含沙洪水事件发生频率上升。
(3)在流域汛期降水量无显著变化背景下,年次洪径流量、输沙量表现为极显著
减少趋势,年均变率为-0.27 mm·a -1 、-221.96 t·km -2 ·a -1 。次洪发生频次从 10.8 次/年,降
低到 6.7 次/年和 3.6 次/年。平均洪峰峰值和沙峰峰值也随之降低,从基准期的 1744.13
m 3 ·s -1 、1091.94 kg·m -3 ,逐阶段降低到1279.65 m 3 ·s -1 、941.96 kg·m -3 和368.93 m 3 ·s -1 、657.56
kg·m -3 。但是 C-Q 滞后环类型,逐阶断仍以逆时针滞后环为主,逆时针滞后环在研究时
段共 358 次洪水事件中发生了 284 次,发生比例为 73.94%。基准期比例为 79.65%,水
保期和生态恢复期则分别为 80.52%、71.87%。(4)次洪径流量和输沙量的线性关系分析表明,一次项系数(产沙动力系数)从
基准期的 808.87 t·m -3 ,下降为 764.07 t·m -3 和 536.63 t·m -3 。统计检验表明,基准期与水
保期水沙关系存在(P=0.004)显著差异,而水保期与生态恢复期水沙关系差异性显著
增强(P=0.002)。说明水土保持综合治理和生态环境建设总体上降低了该流域的径流产
沙能动关系。
(5)采用 P-III 型频率曲线对次洪过程按重现期分类,与基准期 1-2 年重现期次洪
过程比,后两阶段水沙关系均发生显著变化,其方程结构表现出显著差异。而对于 5 年
以上重现期的次洪水,三阶段水沙关系没有显著差异。说明水土流失的综合治理和随后
的生态植被恢复均能够有效控制高概率、低降雨量中的产流和侵蚀输沙过程,而对小概
率、高降雨量中的产流产沙作用不显著。
关键词:生态恢复;水沙关系;次洪水;响应规律;黄土高原

Other Abstract

The deterioration of the ecological environment and serious soil erosion in the Loess
Plateau caused by the unreasonable land use patterns such as the denudation and slopeland
reclamation. The ecological environment is improved since the implementation of the “grain
for green project” in 1999. In this paper ,we chose the upper catchment of Beiluo River which
located in Wuqi County of Shanxi Province as study area that the effect of “Grain for Green
Project” is very significant. Using the daily runoff and sediment, flood runoff and sediment
data measured in Wuqi hydrological stations and hydrological statistics method, we discussed
the behavior of runoff sediment response to the comprehensive management of soil and water
conservation in hilly and gully area of Loess Plateau, especially to the large-scale restoration,
to provide the necessary theoretical and practical basis for planning, ecological construction
and water resources management of sand soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The
main conclusions are as follows:
(1) Over the past 50 years, the volume of runoff and sediment displayed obvious
decreasing tendency with an average annual rate of -0.32 mm·a -1 , -228.91 t·km -2 ·a -1 .
Contrasting with between 1963 and 1979, the volume of runoff and sediment during high flow
and median flow of the three periods showed decreasing tendency and the volume of runoff
and between 2002 and 2011 were abated about 54.6% and 27.1%, respectively. The
decreasing fluctuations of the volume of sediment were stronger with 96.71% and 90.42%,
respectively. However, the volume of base low increased gradually in low flow and the
volumes of sediment of 2003~2011 were vanished completely.
(2) Compared with the baseline period, there is not significant differences for the
relationship between runoff and sediment in inter-annual scale, but the ecological restoration
period has significantly change. The sediment / runoff ratio (C/Q) was decreased by the time ,  especially in 6-8 months of the ecological recovery period, the C/Q value reduced by the
range of 50-81%. The frequency of flood events with high sediment concentration (average
sediment concentration >300 kg·m -3 ) decreased by 82%. The frequency of low
concentration(average sediment concentration <300 kg·m -3 ) has the opposite trend.
(3) The volume of flood runoff and sediment displayed obvious decreasing tendency
with an average annual rate of - 0.27 mm·a -1 and -221.96 t·km -2 ·a -1 with no significant change
in precipitation condition. The flood occurrence frequency from 10.8 times per year, reduced
to 6.7 times per year and 3.6 times per year. Average runoff and sediment peak decreased
from the baseline period for the 1744.13 m 3 ·s -1 and 1091.94 kg·m -3 reduced to 1279.65 m 3 ·s -1
and 941.96 kg m -3 , 368.93 m 3 ·s -1 and 657.56 kg·m -3 . However, as to the C-Q hysteresis loop,
counterclockwise hysteresis accounted for the main part in each period, the baseline period is
79.65%, soil and water conservation period and ecological restoration period were 80.52%,
71.87%, respectively.
(4) The coefficient (sediment dynamic coefficient) from 808.87 t·m -3 in the baseline
period decreased to 764.07 t·m -3 and 536.63 t·m -3 . There is a significant differences of the
runoff and sediment relationship between the baseline period and soil and water conservation
period (P=0.004<0.05), and the significant differences relationship between soil and water
conservation period and ecological recovery period has enhanced (P=0.002<0.05). It showed
that comprehensive management of soil and water conservation and ecological environment
construction reduces the runoff and sediment dynamic in general
(5) The classification of the flood return perioda according to P-III frequency curve wers
analysised the flood events. The linear regression of runoff and sediment yield for the flood
events for 1 to 2 year return period showed a greatly declined trend in sediment production
coefficient. However, as for the flood events with more than 5 year return period, sediment
production coefficient did not illustrate a decreasing trend and the equations did not show any
difference. The results informed that vegetation restoration induced the decrease of runoff
generation and sediment yield in the flood events, but it did not alter the runoff-sediment
behavior, especially in the extreme events in the area.
Keywords: Ecological restoration; Runoff–sediment behavior; Flood events; Response
pattern; Loess Plateau.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9029
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
蔺鹏飞. 北洛河上游次洪水沙过程对生态恢复的响应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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