ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
不同抗性玉米品种苗期干旱及复水过程中的生理响应
曹丹
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王仕稳
2015-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword玉米 干旱 复水 抗旱性 复水恢复能力
Abstract

在实际的农业生产当中,干旱和复水经常是一个连续的过程。不同植物或者同一
植物的不同品种,在干旱及复水的过程中的抗旱和恢复能力存在明显的差异。而作物
对复水的响应方式是在胁迫解除后存在短暂的快速生长,以部分补偿干旱造成的生长
损失。因此,复水后植物的快速恢复能力对作物生产可能具有重要的意义。了解这种
差异存在的原因以及和植物抗旱的关系对了解植物的抗旱机制以及抗旱育种都有重
要的意义。
本试验通过盆栽控水模拟干旱,系统探究了 10 个不同抗性的玉米品种在干旱及
复水过程中的生长和生理响应。比较了不同玉米品种综合抗旱性、干旱下抗旱能力和
复水后恢复能力的差异,并分析了干旱及复水过程中的生理响应与抗旱能力和恢复能
力的关系。主要结果如下:
1、不同玉米品种干旱及复水之后的抗旱性以及恢复能力
干旱胁迫降低了不同品种玉米的生长和生物量积累,而复水后生长得到部分恢复。
10 个玉米品种的抗旱性由强到弱依次为:良玉 99 父本、利民 33 母本、利民 33 父本、
自交系 83-1、良玉 66 母本、P1、良玉 99 母本、良玉 66 父本、P3、郑单 958。而复
水之后的恢复能力由强到弱依次为:P3、良玉 99 父本、自交系 83-1、利民 33 父本、
利民 33 母本、良玉 66 父本、良玉 99 母本、郑单 958、良玉 66 母本、P1。品种的抗
旱能力和恢复能力并不完全一致。
2、干旱及复水条件下不同品种玉米品种的生理响应
干旱胁迫降低了玉米的地上部干重、株高、LRWC、水势、渗透势、光合速率、
蒸腾速率、气孔导度、叶绿素含量、最大光化学效率以及光合量子产量;干旱胁迫下,
H 2 O 2 、MDA 和淀粉的含量则有所上升;而 NPQ、全氮含量、类胡萝卜素含量和可溶
性糖含量的变化无明显规律。复水之后,上述指标较对照均有所恢复,部分品种在生
理水平上表现出了超补偿效应。
3、干旱及复水条件下不同品种玉米品种的生理响应与抗旱性的关系
综合抗旱性与抗旱性之间相关关系不显著(r=0.0750),与恢复能力呈显著的正
相关关系(r=0.9111*)。将各生理指标与抗旱能力、恢复能力以及综合抗旱性进行相关性分析发现,叶绿素含量与品种的抗旱性呈显著的负相关关系(r=-0.6760*),与综
合抗旱性呈显著地正相关关系(r=0.6866*),与复水后的恢复能力具有一定的相关性
(r=0.5520)。而其他生理指标与抗旱性没有相关性。
综上所述,干旱下的抗旱能力和复水后的恢复能力对其综合抗旱性都具有重要的
作用。综合抗旱性较强的品种,可能是由于干旱下较强的抗旱能力(如良玉 99 父本),
也可能是由于复水后较强的恢复能力(如 P3)。植物复水后的恢复是一个相对较迅速
的过程。在干旱过程中减轻干旱胁迫对植物不利影响仍然是旱后复水快速恢复的基础。
而在复水后对植物损伤的快速修复使植物具有更强的旱后恢复能力。叶绿素含量与玉
米的抗旱性之间呈显著的负相关关系,复水后的恢复能力和综合抗旱性与干旱时的叶
绿素含量之间正相关关系。叶绿素含量可以作为衡量作物复水后恢复能力和综合抗旱
性的鉴定指标。
关键词:玉米;干旱;复水;抗旱性;复水恢复能力

Other Abstract

Drought and rehydration is always a continuous process in agricultural
production. Drought resistance and recovery capacity are significantly
different among different plants and different varieties of the same plant. For
crops, there is a rapid growth upon stress release and a partial growth
recovery upon the onset of stress. Hence, recovery capacity maybe more
important to plants after rehydration. To understand the reasons of the
existence of such differences and the relation between drought resistance and
recovery capacity is important for learning the mechanisms of drought
resistance of plants, and breeding for drought resistance varieties.
The pot experiment was conducted by weighing to control water content,
and imitated drought condition, studied the growth and physiological
response of the 10 maize varieties during drought and rehydration. Compared
the differences of comprehensive drought resistance, drought resistance and
recovery capacity of the 10 maize varieties, analyzed the relation between the
physiological response and drought resistance & recovery capacity, The main
conclusions are as follows:
1. Drought resistance and recovery capacity of the 10 maize varieties during
drought and rehydration
Drought decreased the shoot dry weight of the 10 maize varieties. We
used the ratio of shoot dry weight and the contrast to indicate the drought
resistance, the drought resistance of the 10 maize varieties from strong to
weak was: Liangyu99 male parent, Limin33 female parent, Limin33 male
parent, inbred line83-1, Liangyu66 female parent, P1, Liangyu99 female
parent, Liangyu66 male parent, P3, Zhengdan958; The recovery capacity of
the 10 maize varieties from strong to weak was: P3, inbred line83-1,  Zhengdan958, Limin33 male parent, Liangyu99 male parent, P1, Liangyu66
male parent, Liangyu99 female parent, Limin33 female parent, Liangyu66
female parent. Drought resistance and recovery capacity are consistent.
2. Physiological responses of the 10 maize varieties after drought and
rehydration
Drought decreased shoot dry weight, plant height, leaf relative water
content, water potential, osmotic potential, photosynthetic rate, transpiration
rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm and YII; Drought
increased H2O2 content, MDA content, and starch content; NPQ, total
nitrogen content, carotenoid content and soluble sugar content showed no
apparent rule. After rehydration, the indexes above recovered compared to
contrast, some of them even displayed over compensation effects at the
physiological level.
3. The relation between the physiological characteristics and drought
resistance
Correlativity between comprehensive drought resistance and drought
resistance was not obvious, but showed obvious correlativity with recovery
capacity(r=0.9111*).We analyzed the correlativity between physiological
characteristics and drought resistance, recovery capacity and comprehensive
drought resistance, and found that chlorophyll content and the drought
resistance presented obvious negative correlation(r=-0.6760*), and positive
correlation with comprehensive drought resistance(r=0.6866*), and also
showed certain relevance with recovery capacity(r=0.5520), but the other
physiological characteristics showed no obvious correlation with drought
resistance, recovery capacity and comprehensive drought resistance.
In conclusion, drought resistance and recovery capacity are important to
comprehensive drought resistance. Both strong drought resistance(like
Liangyu99 male parent) and strong recovery capacity(like P3) may lead to a
strong comprehensive drought resistance. The recovery after rehydration is a
rapid process. Reduce the adverse effect of drought on plant is the basis of
rapid recovery after rehydration. The rapid repairmen of the damage that  drought made may lead to a strong recover capacity. Obvious correlations
were showed between the chlorophyll content and drought resistance together
with comprehensive drought resistance. Chlorophyll content can be used as an
index to evaluate drought resistance and comprehensive drought resistance.
Key words: maize; drought; rehydration; drought resistance; recovery
capacity

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9026
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
曹丹. 不同抗性玉米品种苗期干旱及复水过程中的生理响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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