ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
覆盖对温室辣椒生理特性及土壤环境的影响研究
穆 兰
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor梁银丽
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword覆盖 日光温室 辣椒 生理特征 土壤环境 综合质量评价
Abstract

随着设施蔬菜的发展,长时间连续种植使土壤理化状况恶化,病虫害频发,
导致产量下降,严重制约了设施农业生产的可持续发展,也对农产品安全及生态
环境造成了不利影响。由于种植辣椒经济效益好,近年来,辣椒栽培面积不断扩
大,现已成为西北地区重要的设施蔬菜作物,同时也成为增加农民收入,促进农
村经济发展的优势作物。而地面覆盖以其效应好在农业生产得到广泛应用,但是,
目前研究多集中在大田方面,且主要研究某一覆盖方式对作物的效应,而缺少对
各种覆盖效应的系统研究,尤其在温室蔬菜生产中,这种系统研究更少。为此,
本试验于2011年和2012年在中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心日
光温室内进行,以辣椒为研究对象,以对照(不作任何覆盖,CK)、地膜覆盖(FM)、
秸秆覆盖(SM)、地膜加秸秆覆盖(CM)为试验因子,分析了覆盖对辣椒生长
发育、生理特征、产量、品质、经济效益及土壤环境的影响,并采用主成分分析
法和灰色关联度分析方法对其进行多目标综合评价,为合理覆盖方式的选择及设
施农业的可持续发展提供依据。通过试验,得到如下研究结果与结论:
(1)不同覆盖处理改变了土壤环境。覆盖处理在各个测定时期土壤含水量一
直高于对照处理,表现为CM>FM>SM>CK;各个处理间土壤温度差异显著,覆
盖处理的温度总体高于不覆盖处理;覆盖不同程度的提高了作物对氮、磷、钾的
吸收,提高了肥料利用率和改善了土壤环境质量;对照处理在整个生育期内土壤
呼吸速率均是显著低于覆盖处理,并且与覆盖处理间达到显著差异(p<0.05),
而CM覆盖处理的土壤呼吸速率最高;而灰色关联分析结果表明土壤有机质、根
系活力、土壤温度和大气温度是影响覆盖方式下土壤呼吸的关键因子,其中以土
壤有机质与土壤呼吸的关系最为密切;其中以土壤pH与土壤呼吸速率的关联度最
小,为0.707。
(2)不同覆盖条件下辣椒光合生理特征的变化。在整个生育期不同覆盖处理之
间光合速率差异显著(p<0.05),CM 覆盖处理最高(15.98 umol CO 2 m -2 s -1 ),CK最低(8.15 umol CO 2 m -2 s -1 );非直角双曲线模型能很好的模拟不同覆盖条件下辣
椒的光合响应曲线,实测曲线和拟合曲线较为吻合(决策系数均>0.9);CM(0.13)
和 FM(0.08)表观量子效率高于 CK(0.07)和 SM(0.06),光能利用效率较高;
CM 处理条件下光补偿点较小(17.67 umolm -2 s -1 ),而 SM 处理条件下饱和点较高
(1000 umolm -2 s -1 ),说明了辣椒在 CM 处理下对弱光的适应能力较强,而 SM 处理
下辣椒对强光的适应能力较强。
(3)不同覆盖条件下辣椒产量、水分利用效率及经济效益分析。覆盖处理能显
著提高辣椒产量, FM、CM 和 SM 相比对照增产 55.76%、160.58%、135.58%;
CM 覆盖处理经济收入最高(16.26 yuan m -2 ),CK 处理的辣椒经济收入最低(6.24
yuan m -2 );不同覆盖处理对水分利用效率的影响也达显著水平(p<0.05),依次为
CM>SM>FM>CK,分别为对照的 2.07 倍、5.21 倍和 4.19 倍,CM 处理无论在节
水还是增产、增收方面,显著优于其他覆盖方式。
(4)不同覆盖处理条件下辣椒果实的品质变化。覆盖对辣椒的感官品种影响表
现为:辣椒果长顺序为 CM>FM>SM>CK,各处理之间差异显著(p<0.05);FM、
CM、SM 覆盖处理比对照处理的辣椒果径分别宽了 5.18%、12.35%和 1.19%;从果
形指数来看,CM 覆盖处理的辣椒果形指数在整个结果期变化幅度最小仅为 0.03,
更好的保持了商品的一致性;FM 覆盖处理的辣椒维生素 C 含量最高,达 33.81 mg
kg -1 ,对照处理的维生素 C 含量最低,为 22.73 mg kg -1 ;CM 和 SM 覆盖处理能够
提高辣椒的辣椒素含量,最高可达 0.25%,并且与其他两种处理间差异达显著水平
(p<0.05);覆盖处理降低了辣椒果实中硝酸盐含量,FM 处理硝酸盐含量最低
(29.81 mg kg -1 )。
(5)覆盖效益对日光温室辣椒影响的综合质量评价。用主成分分析法对 4 个不
同覆盖处理模式进行综合质量评价的结果为:CM>SM>FM>CK,其中 CM 处理的
得分最高为 4.21,而 CK 处理的得分最低为 1.53;运用灰色关联度分析方法对 4 种
不同覆盖处理关联模式进行综合质量评价,其结果为:CM>SM>CK>FM,其中 CM
处理的关联度最大,为 0.912,FM 处理的关联度最小,为 0.709;CM 在两项综合
评价方法中均是最高,说明 CM 处理能实现辣椒高效、优质及土壤的可持续生产,
在设施高效农业中应该加以推广。
关键词: 覆盖,日光温室,辣椒,生理特征,土壤环境,综合质量评价

Other Abstract

With the development of the facility vegetables, long time continuous cultivation caused
the soil physical and chemical conditions deteriorated, the plant diseases and insect pests
frequently occurred. This resulted in the yield declined and not only seriously hampered the
sustainable development of facility agricultural production, but also had the adversely effect
on the safety of agricultural products and ecological environment. In recent years, pepper
cultivation areas continued to expand because of the economic benefit. Pepper had become
one of the important facility vegetables in northwest region and also proved to be the superior
crop for increasing farmers′ income and promoting rural economic development. Mulching
were widely used in agricultural production because of its good effect, however, this study
was mainly on the field crops and also concentrated one of the mulching effect on crops. And
lacked of systematic research on the effect of various mulching practices, especially in the
greenhouse vegetable production this system was less researched. Therefore, this study was
carried out in the experimental greenhouse of Institute of the soil and water conservation, the
Chinese Academy of Science and Ministry of water Resources in Yangling in 2011 and 2012.
And the objective of the research was to study the effect of the different mulching practices
(CK, without mulching; FM, plastic film mulching; CM, combined mulch with plastic film
and wheat straw; SM, straw mulching) on the physiological characteristics and soil conditions
of hot pepper in greenhouse. And multiple objective comprehensive evaluations were
conducted with principal component analysis method and grey relational analysis method.
The following results were obtained:
(1) Mulching improved the soil environment. Soil water content (SWC) was higher under
the mulching practices than under no-mulching condition and SWC followed the order
CM>FM>SM>CK; Soil temperature had significantly difference between different treatments,
mulching had warmer effect and soil temperature was also higher under mulching than under  no-mulching; Mulching increased the crop absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
and increased the fertilizer use efficiency, which significantly improved soil environmental
quality. Soil respiration (Rs) of hot pepper was changed under mulching practices. The
highest Rs was obtained under CM treatment and the Rs measured in the control soil was
always lower than that for any mulch material treatment over the entire growing season; The
differences between CK and FM and CM and SM were significant at p<0.05; Based on the
grey correlative analysis, the result showed that soil organic matter, root vigor, soil and air
temperature were the key influencing factors under mulching practices and the relationship of
Rs and soil organic matter was most closely, pH had the lowest correlation coefficients with
Rs which was 0.707.
(2) Physiological characteristics of hot pepper were changed under mulching practices.
During the growth process of hot pepper, the leaf net photosynthesis rate was significant
difference between different treatments, being highest for CM application (15.98 umol CO 2
m -2 s -1 ), lowest for CK management (8.15 umol CO 2 m -2 s -1 ); Results indicated that the
photosynthesis-light response curves of hot pepper was appropriate to a non-rectangular
hyperbolic model, measured curve and simulated curve were consistent (Decision coefficients
were higher than 0.9); Apparent quantum efficiency was higher under CM (0.103) and FM
(0.08) than under CK (0.07) and SM (0.06); CM maintained more lower light compensation
point (LCP) and SM maintained higher light saturation point (LSP), which indicated pepper
was more adapted to low light under CM treatment while pepper was more adapted to strong
light under SM practices.
(3) Analysis of yield, water use efficiency and economic benefits of hot pepper under
mulching practices. Yield was highest under CM treatment and FM, CM, SM increase yield
by 55.76%, 160.58%, 135.58%, respectively; Economic income of pepper was highest under
CM (16.26 yuan m -2 ) while lowest under CK (6.24 yuan m -2 ); Water use efficiency was
significant difference between different treatments (p<0.05) and followed the order
CM>SM>FM>CK, which indicated CM was significantly better than other treatment in terms
of water conservation, increasing yield and income.
(4) Fruit quality of hot pepper was changed under mulching practices. Pepper fruit length
followed the order CM>FM>SM>CK, and also showed significant difference between  different treatments (p<0.05); Pepper fruit diameter under FM, CM and SM was wider by
5.18%, 12.35% and 1.19% than CK management, while CM was the widest; Pepper fruit
shape index under CM was changed smallest (0.03) during the growing season, which showed
CM was better to maintain the consistency of the products; Vitamin C of pepper was highest
for FM (33.81 mg kg -1 ) while the lowest under CK (22.73 mg kg -1 ) treatment; The content of
pepper capsaicin was increased under CM and SM treatments and also showed significant
difference between CK and FM treatments; Mulching reduced the nitrate content in pepper
fruits, FM had the lowest nitrate content (29.81 mg kg -1 ).
(5) Principal component analysis method and grey relational analysis method were used
to conduct the multiple objective comprehensive evaluations. The result of comprehensive
evaluation was CM>SM>FM>CK while using principal component analysis methods, CM
got the highest score (4.21) while CK got the lowest score (1.53); the result of comprehensive
evaluation was CM>SM>CK>FM while using grey relational analysis method, the correlation
coefficients was highest under CM (0.912) while lowest under FM (0.709) treatment; CM was
got highest score and correlation coefficients under the two comprehensive evaluation
methods, indicating CM treatment could achieve pepper high-efficient, high-quality and
soil-quality production and CM should be promoted in facility and efficient agriculture. 
Key words: Mulching, Greenhouse, Hot pepper, Physiological characteristics, Soil
environment, Comprehensive quality evaluation.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9022
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
穆 兰. 覆盖对温室辣椒生理特性及土壤环境的影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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