ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土塬区水肥供应和覆膜 对玉米生长和氮素吸收的影响
王 秀 康
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李 占 斌
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword玉米 灌溉 施肥 覆膜 土壤含水量 土壤硝态氮含量 产量
Abstract

在黄土塬区农业研究中,限制农业发展的主要因子是水资源匮乏,水土流失严重,
同时,土壤肥力也是影响黄土塬区农业的主要因素。土壤水分和养分相互影响,相互制
约,土壤水分是土壤养分溶解和迁移的介质载体,养分的运移量、运移速率和运移深度
受土壤水分状况的影响,养分不足则影响水分的吸收和利用。研究土壤水分和养分对作
物产量及土壤环境的影响,是农业可持续发展的有效途径,是粮食安全和环境保护的基
本措施。本文研究了不同水肥供应和覆膜对盆栽和大田玉米的生长、产量及养分吸收利
用的影响,以期为农业田间管理技术提供理论基础和技术支撑。取得主要结论如下:
(1) 施氮量和灌水量对盆栽玉米的株高和叶面积影响极显著,株高和叶面积的生长
与灌水量正相关,苗期和拔节期株高随施氮量的增加而减小。在整个生育期,拔节期叶
面积的生长速率最大,是苗期的 6.98-13.73 倍。地上和地下部的生长有同步性,干物质
积累量随灌水量的增大而增加,根冠比随生育期的延长呈下降趋势。施氮明显增加叶绿
素含量,同时,施氮显著提高玉米的抗旱能力。
(2) 盆栽玉米根系和茎叶 N 含量随生育期的推进逐渐下降,与施氮量正相关,与灌
水量负相关。根系中 N 营养逐渐向茎叶转移,成熟期茎叶 N 分配率占 90%以上。根系
和茎叶 N 累积量的增加速率呈先迅速增大后逐渐下降的趋势,成熟期茎叶 N 日吸收量
接近根系的 9 倍。灌水量和施肥量显著影响水分和氮肥利用效率,水分利用效率与灌水
量正相关,低氮处理的水分利用效率最大为 3.08kg·m -3 ,氮肥利用效率与灌水量正相关,
与施氮量负相关,高水低氮处理的氮肥利用效率最大为 65.44%。
(3) 大田玉米株高和叶面积与灌水量和施肥量均正相关,拔节期的叶面积日均增加
量达 137.50-179.03 cm 2 ·plant -1 。施肥量对产量影响极显著,水肥交互作用对产量的影响
显著。作物生长率的变化趋势是先升后降。产量及生物学产量与灌水量和施肥量均呈正
相关,高水高肥处理的产量最大为 7923.02kg·ha -1 ,是对照处理的 1.72 倍。
(4) 施肥和灌水对土壤含水量的影响明显,施肥量越大,土壤含水量的变化幅度越
大。灌溉水生产力和灌溉水利用效率与施肥量呈正相关,与灌水量呈负相关。在苗期和
拔节期,土壤硝态氮含量随土层深度的增加逐渐降低,施肥处理显著影响土壤硝态氮含
量。在整个生育期,0-30cm 土层深度范围内,土壤铵态氮含量最大,在 30cm 处土壤铵
态氮含量迅速减小,在 50-100cm 深度范围内的土壤铵态氮含量变化较小。(5) 在 10cm处,覆膜处理的增温效果最明显。在 7 月份前,土壤温度平均增加 2.3°C,
在 7-9 月,土壤温度平均增加 1.2°C。在 0-60cm,覆膜处理的土壤含水量明显高于不覆
膜处理,在 140-200cm,覆膜处理的土壤含水量下降比较明显,在成熟期,不同耕作方
式处理的土壤含水量差异不明显。播种后一个月,土壤硝态氮聚集区主要分布在 10cm
处,施肥处理的土壤硝态氮含量是不施肥处理的 1.65 倍,土壤硝态氮纵向分布以田间垄
为中心,近似对称分布,在根系下方 30cm 处,形成一个孤岛,播种后两个月,表层土
壤的硝态氮含量下降 30.77-48.67 mg·kg -1 。施肥和覆膜处理的玉米产量比对照处理的产
量增加 23.42%-83.23%。
(6) 构建了不覆膜和覆膜条件下,玉米栽培的施氮、补充灌溉模式。第一种田间管
理技术:(a)灌水处理:灌水总量为 112.5mm,其中,苗期灌水 25mm,拔节期灌水 50mm,
灌浆期灌水 37.5mm,成熟期不灌水;(b)施肥处理:氮肥 180kg·ha -1 ,磷肥施用量为 160
kg·ha -1 。第二种田间管理技术:(a)覆膜;(b)灌水处理:灌水总量为 50mm,其中,拔节
期灌水 25mm,灌浆期灌水 25mm;(c)施肥处理:基肥氮肥 80kg·ha -1 ,追肥氮肥 80 kg·ha -1 ,
磷肥施用量为 80 kg·ha -1 。第三种田间管理技术:(a)覆膜;(b)施肥处理:基肥氮肥
80kg·ha -1 ,追肥氮肥 80 kg·ha -1 ,磷肥施用量为 80 kg·ha -1 。
关键词 :玉米;灌溉;施肥;覆膜;土壤含水量;土壤硝态氮含量;产量

Other Abstract

The main factors restricted the Loess Plateau agricultural development was short of
water resources, serious soil erosion and soil fertility. Soil moisture and fertility influence
each other, soil moisture was the medium and carrier for soil fertility dissolution and
migration, and the fertility migration amount, migration rate and migration depth were
affected by soil moisture content; the fertility deficiency affects on soil moisture absorption
and utilization. In order to study the influence of soil moisture and fertility on crop yield and
soil environment research, which was an effective way in the agricultural sustainable
development and a basic measure for food security and environmental protection. The
purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and
mulching on maize growth, soil environment, nitrogen absorption and grain yield in pot and
field experiments, and to provide theoretical and experimental basis for field management.
The main conclusions were as follows:
(1) There were significant differences on maize plant height and leaf area among
irrigation and fertilization amount (P<0.01). Plant height and leaf area were positively
correlated with irrigation amount. The plant height decreased with the increase of nitrogen
fertilization in seedling and jointing stage. The growth of root synchronized with
aboveground biomass, and the dry matter accumulation increased with the increase of
irrigation; the root-shoot ratio declined with the increase of growth period. The nitrogen
fertilization significantly increased the chlorophyll content, and the drought-resistant ability
was also increased.
(2) The root and stem-leaf nitrogen content gradually declined along with the
advancement of growth period, which positively related to the nitrogen application, and
negatively related to the irrigation water. Nitrogen nutrient in root gradually shifted to stem
and leaf, and stem-leaf N distribution in mature accounted for more than 90%. The nitrogen
accumulation rate in root and stem-leaf was on the trend of quickly increasing first and then
gradually declining. The stem-leaf nitrogen accumulation was about nine times of root in the  mature stage. Water and nitrogen use efficiency was significantly influenced by irrigation and
fertilization amount. Water use efficiency increased with the increase of irrigation amount,
which was the largest in low nitrogen treatment (3.08kg·m -3 ). Nitrogen use efficiency
increased with the increase of irrigation amount, and decreased with the increase of nitrogen
application. Nitrogen use efficiency was the largest (65.44%) in high water and low nitrogen
treatment.
(3) Plant height and leaf area positively related to the irrigation and nitrogen amount,
and the daily leaf area in jointing stage was among 137.50 to 179.03 cm 2 ·plant -1 . There was
an extremely significant difference on yield for irrigation, and a significant difference for
interaction between water and fertilization. The variation trend of crop growth rate rises first
and then falls. Yield and biological yield positively correlated to irrigation and fertilizer
amount. Yield was the largest (7923.02kg·ha -1 ) in high water and high nitrogen treatment,
which was 1.72 times of check treatment.
(4) The influence of fertilization and irrigation on soil water content was obvious. The
greater the fertilizer amount, the greater the amplitude of variation of soil water content.
Irrigation water productivity and water use efficiency were positively correlated with
fertilizing amount, which were negatively correlated with irrigation amount. The soil
nitrate-N content was reduced gradually with the increase of soil depth in seedling and
jointing stage. There was significant difference of soil nitrate-N content among fertilization
treatments. The soil ammonium-N content in 0 to 30 cm was largest than others, and the soil
ammonium-N content was decreased rapidly in 30 cm, and the results showed that small
variation of soil ammonium-N content from 50 to 100 cm.
(5) The soil temperature of the 10-cm mulching treatment was significantly higher than
the no-mulching treatment, and the average soil temperature of the mulching treatment
increased 2.3 °C before July and nearly 1.2 °C after July. The soil water content in the
mulching treatment was significantly higher than the no-mulching treatment at 0-60 cm; the
level was significantly reduced at 140-200 cm. In mature period, there was no significant
difference of soil water content of different cultivation. The trend for soil nitrate-N content
distribution revealed symmetrical shapes along the center of furrows, and the standard
symmetrical distribution was reduced gradually along with the soil depth increasing under
plastic film mulching conditions. The soil nitrate-N content with basal fertilizer was 1.65
times higher than with no fertilizer at 36 days after sowing. The soil nitrate-N content was
reduced from 30.77 to 48.67 mg·kg -1 in the topsoil after 58 days. Our findings indicate that
plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer increased maize yield 23.42% to 83.23%.
(6) We recommend the first farming management technology: (a) the irrigation amount is  112.5mm, which irrigation in seedling stage is 25 mm, jointing stage is 50mm, and filling
stage is 37.5 mm and mature period with no irrigation, respectively; (b) fertilization treatment
are 80 kg pure N and 160 kg P 2 O 5 per ha. We recommend the second farming management
technology: (a) film mulching; (b) the irrigation amount is 50mm, which irrigation in jointing
stage is 25mm, and in filling stage is 25mm; (c) fertilization treatment are 80 kg pure N and
80 kg P 2 O 5 per ha as basal application. We recommend the third farming management
technology: (a) film mulching; (b) basal fertilizer is 80 kg pure N and 80 kg P 2 O 5 per ha,
topdressing fertilizer is 80 kg pure N per ha.
Key words: Maize; Irrigation; Fertilization; Mulching; The soil water content. The soil
nitrate-N content; Grain yield

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9020
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 秀 康. 黄土塬区水肥供应和覆膜 对玉米生长和氮素吸收的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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