ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土区微型蓄雨设施水体水质变化及对饮水安全影响
许秀泉
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor高建恩
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword蓄雨设施 饮水安全 水质变化 水质评价 土壤固化剂
Abstract

随着全球水资源紧张加剧,在中国及世界许多地区,雨水不仅作为生产用水,而
且作为生活用水得到广泛应用,但作为饮用水源的水质问题研究薄弱,研究雨水作为
饮用水源的水质变化对饮水安全影响具有重要意义。本研究针对黄土区微型蓄雨设施
中水体污染物时空分布及对饮水安全影响等方面存在的问题,选取与人体健康密切相
关的水体典型污染物作为研究对象,通过理论分析和室内外试验相结合的方法,重点
研究了蓄集雨水典型污染物时空变化规律及作用机制,取得主要成果如下:
1、蓄雨水体水质随时间变化规律。雨水贮存过程中,污染物含量随时间增加呈
现逐渐降低,在 20~30 天内达到稳定的趋势,该变化趋势符合水体自净作用影响规律。
分析了贮存过程中沉降、扩散、降解和源汇等作用对污染物迁移转化影响,概化了污
染物随时间变化过程,建立了基于降解和源汇的计算公式,验证结果表明浊度和 COD
模拟结果较理想;含氮化合物影响因素复杂,其模拟结果具有一定偏差,但变化趋势
一致,说明该公式在一定程度上反应蓄雨水体污染物随时间变化。计算与实测结果表
明,蓄雨设施贮存雨水 20~30 天后水体污染物含量较低,为适宜取水时段,该结论对
饮水安全具有重要实际意义。
2、蓄雨水体水质的空间变化服从重力与扩散相互作用规律。实测结果表明,贮
存雨水污染物含量沿垂线分布呈现两端高、中间低的特征,主要受底层沉积物质和表
层水体漂浮物两个主要污染源及水体生物的影响,本质是重力和扩散相互作用的结
果。基于重力与扩散的相互作用,根据贮存水体边界条件,给出了污染物沿垂线分布
的公式,利用实测的浊度和 COD 资料验证,发现模拟结果存在一定偏差,但分布趋
势一致,表明该公式在一定程度上揭示了水体污染物的空间分布规律,但计算较复杂。
为了计算方便,依据实测资料给出了污染物沿垂线方向的经验性关系。上述研究结果
表明,在相对水深 0.4~0.6 h 处污染物含量最低,为适宜取水位置。该结论对蓄雨设
施饮水安全提供了技术保障。
3、不同蓄雨材料对蓄雨水体水质影响。试验结果表明,蓄雨水体水质变化的稳
定阶段主要受扩散作用影响,微型蓄雨设施材料对水体影响较大。进一步研究表明,采用新型材料 MBER(a Material Becoming Earth into Rock)土壤固化剂的蓄水设施水
体污染物时空分布与其它常用材料一致,但土壤固化剂对比水泥材料蓄水污染物含量
降低 15~20%,空间分布上水体中部位置相对浊度和 COD 含量分别降低 15%和 8%左
右。分析表明,与水泥材料相比,土壤固化剂与土壤及水的相互作用,产生了更多的
具有吸附作用的 Ca(OH) 2 等产物,强化了水体的自净作用。上述结果表明 MBER 土
壤固化剂作为蓄雨设施材料具有水质好的优势,作为安全饮水工程材料具有可行性。
4、安全蓄雨水质的简易评价方法研究。针对饮用水监测指标过多,水质不易评
价的问题,研究发现,不同的污染物成分多数具有一定的联系,可以通过统计分析排
除内在联系,优化出浊度、COD、易溶离子(如硝酸根)和 pH 共 4 个指标作为总体
控制指标来评价水体水质状况。利用 4 个指标建立了以安全饮水为目标的雨水水质评
价方法,经过实测资料分析和与其它方法的比较,表明该方法在评价雨水适宜饮用问
题上,具有直观、可靠和实用的特点。
5、安全蓄雨设施对典型地区雨水利用的水质保障作用。在地表水为苦咸水,地
下水为高氟水的定边白云山地区,农村庭院以固化土及水泥等为材质的蓄雨设施水体
水质监测结果表明,使用期内水质基本符合饮水安全要求,取水拟在水体中上部。而
在黄土高原丘陵沟壑区小流域的塘、河、库蓄集雨水监测结果表明,除部分水体浊度
和 COD 含量较高以外,水质基本符合饮水安全要求。蓄雨设施不但有助于解决小流
域尺度的饮水安全问题,同时具有防治水土流失的作用。
关键词:蓄雨设施;饮水安全;水质变化;水质评价;土壤固化剂

Other Abstract

Under the press of globle water resource shortage, harvested rainwater has been
widely used to provide not only process water but also domestic water consumption in
China and many other coutries. It is an important issue to investigate water quality
variation of harvested rainwater as drinking water source in micro-storage facilities and its
influence on safety of drinking water. Aiming at a number of problems with water quality
issue during rainwater utilization, the paper took some typical water quality parameters
closely related to human health as researcher object, studied characteristics and mechanism
of the spatio-temporal variability of the referred pollutants, by means of indoor and
outdoor experiment and theoretical analysis. The main conclusions are listed as follows:
1. Simulation and analysis of temporal variation of typical pollutants concentration in
harvested rainwater. During storage process, the concentration of pollutants gradually
reduced with time, and reached a stable trend in 20~30 days, which agreed with effect of
self-purification. According to the measured results of temporal variation in pollutants
concentration, the temporal migration process changes of pollutants could be dividend into
three stages, viz. the early settlement-dominant period, the transition period and the
diffusion-dominant period. A numerical model was established for describing the temporal
changes of pollutants in small and micro-rainwater utilization engineering, validated and
evaluated. And turbidity and COD werer verified well by the monitoring results; nitrogen
compounds had a certain deviation, but a rational trend. 20-30 days after storage was
recommended as suitable time for utilization.
2. Simulation and analysis of vertical distribution of typical pollutants concentration
in rainwater. Turbidity and COD contents are high at two ends and low in the middle along
the vertical line, due to sediment at the bottom and floating debris at the surface and
biological activities. Sediment and floating debris are two main pollution sources. Along
the vertical line, the measured relative pollutant content was positively correlated to the
power function of relative distance from the pollution source. Several types of vertical  distribution were given based on the measured data. So low pollutant content appears in
the middle, and cleanness of surface and bottom could improve harvested rainwater quality.
A numerical model was established for describing the vertical distribution of pollutants in
small and micro- rainwater utilization engineering, validated and evaluated, and was
verified by the monitoring results, which had certain deviation, but credible usage. A
relative depth of 0.4-0.6 h was was recommended as suitable zone for utilization.
3. The effect of MBER soil stabilizer, compared with cement material, as construction
materials on water quality was studied. With the effect of soil stabilizer, during storage
time, the pollutants concentration decreased about 15~20%; as for the vertical distribution,
the relative concentration decreased about 8~12%. The effect of solidified soil using
MBER soil stabilizer was due to the hydrate reaction of solidified soil and reaction
products. Soil stabilizer could strengthen self-purification of water to some extent, which
could reduce the amount of turbidity, COD and some ions such as nitrate and nitrite.
Results showed that the water quality did not exceed the standard for drinking water in
China for distribute water supply. Results in this research were valuable for popularization
and application of MBER soil stabilizer in rainwater utilization from point view of water
quality issue.
4. A suitable water quality assessment method was given. Turbidity, COD, ions (such
as nitrate) and pH were chosen as the main factors or indicators for describing the
characterization of rainwater quality using statistics analysis method. The rainwater quality
assessment method was presented as a result to security drinking water quality. Through
data analysis and comparison, the method is intuitive, reliable and targeted.
5. The suitability of different spatial scales of rainwater utilization was investigated.
Harvested rainwater utilization in the rural single family courtyard, small watershed was
investigated and evaluated. Results showed that: rainwater utilization had great potential
in solving the rural household in dingbian. Rational utilization of rainwater resources is a
suitable strategy to alleviate the problem of drinking water safety in rural area.
Key words: rainwater storage facilities; drinking water safety; spatio-temporal variation; water quality
index; soil stabilizer

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9015
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
许秀泉. 黄土区微型蓄雨设施水体水质变化及对饮水安全影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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