ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
荒漠绿洲区春小麦生长与水分利用效率研究
马 莉
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王全九
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword春小麦 水分利用效率(Wue) 光合特征 Logistic 模型 Aquacrop 模型
Abstract

水资源不足是制约我国西北荒漠绿洲区春小麦生产的关键因素,因此,实现水资
源的可持续发展和建立高效节水型绿洲农业,就需要掌握春小麦的生长特性和需水规
律,并寻找合理有效的节水措施,确定适宜该地区土壤、气候条件下的最佳灌溉制度
和建立最优的种植模式。本论文在分析春小麦生长特征、需水规律与光合特征的基础
上,对水分利用效率、耗水量和产量相关性以及水分利用效率的影响因素等方面进行
了分析,进而阐明各种调控方式下水分消耗与生长特征相互作用。本研究设定春小麦
全生育期六个灌水处理,分别为 W1(240mm)、W2(300mm)、W3(360mm)、W4(420mm)、
W5(480mm)、W0(0mm);四个覆盖处理,地膜覆盖(B)、秸秆覆盖(M)、石子覆盖(S)、
对照(CK),灌溉量均为 360mm。主要研究结论如下:
(1)灌溉定额的高低直接影响到小麦的株高、叶面积指数和地上、地下生物量和
籽粒产量。各灌水处理的籽粒产量由高到低依次为 W4 处理>W5 处理>W3 处理>
W2 处理>W1 处理>W0 处理。各处理间水分利用效率(WUE)大小依次是 W4 处理>
W3处理>W1处理>W2处理>W5处理> W0处理。产量与整个生育期耗水量(ET)、
水分利用效率(WUE)之间分别呈二次曲线方程,W4(420mm)处理的水分利用效率和籽
粒产量最大,是适合该地区的最佳灌溉量。
(2)覆盖处理下,籽粒产量和千粒重均是 B 处理>S 处理>CK 处理>M 处理。与
对照处理(CK)相比,地膜覆盖(B)春小麦籽粒产量增加了 2.2%~10.9%,石子覆盖处
理(S)春小麦籽粒产量增加了 0.86%~3.50%,秸秆覆盖处理(M)籽粒产量增加了
-6.9%~9.4%。可见,地膜覆盖处理(B)较其它处理更有利于提高作物产量,在同等条
件下达到高产的目的。
(3)根据水量平衡法求得春小麦各处理的耗水量在 490~650mm 之间,且随着灌
溉量的增加而增加。春小麦耗水的两个关键期分别为拔节后期~抽穗前期和抽穗后
期~灌浆前期。春小麦整个生育期内各灌水处理下的总体蒸散量(ET)大小依次为 W5
处理>W4 处理>W3 处理>W2 处理>W1 处理>W0 处理。全生育期内作物的蒸腾
耗水量(T 小麦 )分别为,W0 处理占总蒸散量的 66.16%;W1 处理占总蒸散量的 79.6%;
W2 处理占总蒸散量的 80.5%;W3 处理占总蒸散量的 81.25%;W4 处理占总蒸散量的80.6%;W5处理占总蒸散量的81.3%。覆盖处理下春小麦耗水量的大小依次为, CK
处理>S 处理>B 处理>M 处理。
(4)春小麦叶片光合速率日变化的大小依次为W4处理>W5处理>W3处理>W2
处理>W1 处理>W0 处理;W3、W4、W5 灌水处理的光合速率日变化总体趋势呈单
峰曲线变化,而 W1、W2、W0 处理的下光合速率呈双峰曲线,有“午休”现象。可
见高灌水处理可以减少小麦“午休”现象。拔节期和灌浆期是春小麦光合速率的高峰
期。覆盖处理下,春小麦光合速率(Pn)日变化的大小依次为 B 处理>S 处理>CK 处
理>M 处理,且呈单峰曲线变化特征。过度干旱和过多的灌水均不利用小麦的光合
作用。主成分分析结果显示,不同的灌溉定额下,光合速率、蒸腾速率、大气温度和
土壤含水量是影响春小麦水分利用效率的主要因素。不同覆盖处理下,叶片温度、5cm
土壤温度和土壤含水量是影响春小麦水分利用效率的重要因素。地膜覆盖(B)较其它
覆盖处理有利于土壤保温,而秸秆覆盖处理(M)有利于保持土壤水分。
(5)采用 Farquhar 模型来模拟不同灌水处理和覆盖条件下春小麦的净光合速率
(Pn),并计算出光补偿点和光饱和点以及其它光合特征参数。实验数据显示,W4 处
理最大光合速率值为 39.8μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 ,成为最大值,且光补偿点值最小,为
2.32μmol /(m -2 ·s -1 )。地膜覆盖(B)和石子覆盖处理(S)比秸秆覆盖(M)处理更有利于提高
春小麦的最大净光合速率,且有较低的光补偿点和较高的光饱和点。因此,W4(240mm)
灌水处理和地膜覆盖(B)处理下的春小麦对光的生态适应能力强于其它覆盖处理和对
照处理。
(6)经分析春小麦株高、叶面积指数、地上生物量的生长特性,均符合经典 Logistic
曲线,因此以株高(H)为自变量,建立关于叶面积指数(L)和地上生物量(B)的 Logistic
曲线模型。并根据对照处理(CK)和覆盖处理下模型参数特点,提出覆盖系数 k , 并建
立覆盖处理和无覆盖处理参数之间的函数关系。经误差检验和相关性分析,模拟值与
实测值吻合度较高,以株高作为自变量的修正 logistic 模型可以很好的模拟作物叶面
积指数和地上生物量的变化过程。
(7)采用 AquaCrop 模型来模拟荒漠绿洲区不同灌水定额下的春小麦的土壤含水
量、冠层覆盖度、地上生物量和籽粒产量。结果显示,模拟值与实测值之间吻合较好,
且对高灌水处理(W3、W4、W5)的土壤含水量模拟精度要高于低灌水处理(W0、W1、
W2)的土壤含水量。因此,AquaCrop 模型可以用来很好的模拟该地区的作物生长过
程和土壤含水量的变化过程。
关键词 : 春小麦;水分利用效率(WUE);光合特征;Logistic 模型;AquaCrop 模型

Other Abstract

Water shortage was the key factor that was restricting the spring wheat production in
Desert-oasis of northwest China. So, if the water resources sustainable development was
realized and the efficient or water-saving oasis agriculture was build that the growth
characteristics and the pattern water requirement of spring wheat was mastered. And
finding the reasonable effective water-saving measures and determines optimal irrigation
system for soil and climate conditions in the region and establishes the optimum planting
pattern. This paper analyzed the relationship between water use efficiency, water
consumption and production as well as influencing factors of water use efficiency which
based on the analysis of spring wheat growth characteristics, water requirement and light
characteristics. And then clarify the water consumption and the interactions of growth
characters under the various control modes. This study set six irrigation treatments and
four mulch modes. such as, W1(240mm)、W2(300mm)、W3(360mm)、W4(420mm)、
W5(480mm)、W0(0mm);Film mulch(B)、Straw mulch(M)、Stone mulch(S)and CK. The
irrigation quantity of mulch treatments was 360mm. The mainly results as follow:
(1)The irrigation quota directly affected the plant height, leaf area index and
aboveground and belowground biomass and grain yield of spring wheat. The grain yield in
descending order was: W4>W5>W3>W2>W1>W0. The descending order of the water use
efficiency (WUE) was W4>W3>W1>W2>W5>W0. There were quadratic curve equation
between yield and water consumption (ET), water use efficiency (WUE).the maximum
value of water use efficiency and grain yield was W4 (420mm) treatment so that it was
best suitable for irrigation in the region.
(2)The grain yield and thousand grain weights in descending order was: B>S>CK>M.
Comparing the CK treatment, the grain yield of B treatment was increased by 2.2%~10.9%.
And the grain yield of S treatment was increased by 0.86%~0.35%. The grain yield of M  treatment was increased by -6.9%~9.4%. So, B treatment compared with other treatments
was better to improve crop yields, under the same conditions to achieve high purposes.
(3) According to the water balance method, the wheat water consumption of spring
wheat was 490mm to 650mm under the different irrigation treatment. The maximum
values of Water consumption was in the periods of the jointing late~pre-heading and
heading late~pre-filling stage. The evapotranspiration (ET) in descending order was
W5>W4>W3>W2>W1>W0. Respectively, crops transpiration (T) of W0 accounted for
66.16% of total ET. W1 accounted for 79.60% of total ET. W2 accounted for 80.64% of
total ET. W3 accounted for 81.25% of total ET. W4 accounted for 80.58% of total ET. W5
accounted for 81.26% of total ET. Mulch treatments, the water consumption of spring
wheat in descending order was CK>S>B> M.
(4)The diurnal variations of spring wheat’s photosynthetic rate in the descending
order was W4>W5>W3>W2>W1>W0; the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate
showed a single peak curve trend in W3, W4, and W5. But photosynthetic rate of W1, W2,
and CK showed bimodal curve, the “lunch break " phenomenon. So, higher water
irrigation treatments could effectively restrain the "lunch break" phenomenon of spring
wheat.Jointing and filling stage was the peak periods of spring wheat photosynthetic
rate .In mulch treatments, the diurnal variations of spring wheat’s photosynthetic rate were
in the descending order. Such as, was B>S>CK>M. and photosynthetic rate showed a
single peak curve characteristics. Excessive drought and excessive irrigation were not
beneficial to improve the photosynthesis of spring wheat.There were the quadratic
relationship between Transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Cond), soil water
content (W), solar radiation (PAR) and leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The result of
principal component analysis showed that the key affected environmental factors of the
water use efficiency of spring wheat were the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and air
temperature and soil moisture under different irrigation treatments. However, under
different mulching treatments, leaf temperature, 5cm soil temperature and soil moisture
were the important environmental factors affected the water use efficiency of spring wheat.
Film mulch (B) treatments were better to maintain soil temperature than other treatments.
It was beneficial to help maintain soil moisture by Straw mulch (M).
(5)Farquhar model was used to simulate net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of different  irrigation and mulch treatments of Spring Wheat. And the light compensation point and
light saturation point, and other photosynthetic parameters could be calculated by the
Farquhar model. Experimental data showed that the maximum photosynthetic rate of W4
treatment had a maximum light saturation point (39.8μmol CO 2 •m -2 •s -1 ) and a minimum
light compensation point (2.32μmol CO 2 •m -2 •s -1 ). Film mulch (B) was more conducive to
improving maximum net photosynthetic rate of spring wheat than others. Therefore, W4
(240mm) Irrigation and Film mulching (B) treatment of spring wheat had a better the light
ecological adaptability than any other treatments.
(6)The growth characteristics of spring wheat plant height, leaf area index, and
aboveground biomass were conforming to the characteristics of classic Logistic curve with
analysis. So, the new modified Logistic modes were built by plant height (H) as the
independent variable. The leaf area index (L) and aboveground biomass (B) can be
calculated easily by the new modified Logistic model. And according to the parameters
characters of the CK and mulching treatments, a cover factor k was proposed. Therefore,
the functional relationship between CK and mulching treatments was established by the
classic Logistic. By The error test and correlation analysis, simulation and measured values
had a higher degree of agreement. The amendment logistic model can well simulate crop
leaf area index and aboveground biomass by the faction of height as the independent
(7) Aquacrop models was used to simulate the soil moisture, canopy cover,
aboveground biomass and grain yield of the spring wheat under different irrigation
treatments in Desert-oasis. The results showed that the simulated values were agreed well
with the observed values. And the simulation accuracy of the high water irrigation
treatments is better than the low water irrigation treatments. Therefore, Aquacrop model
can be used to simulate the crop growth and soil moisture change process in this region.
KEY WORDS: spring wheat; water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic characteristics;
Logistic model; AquaCrop model  

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9012
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马 莉. 荒漠绿洲区春小麦生长与水分利用效率研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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