ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
近 50 年来 河套灌区作物生产水足迹时空演变 过程 研究
孙世坤
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吴普特
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword水足迹 时空演变 影响因子 河套灌区
Abstract

河套灌区是我国 3 个特大型灌区之一,近年来由于引黄水配额下降,加之用水效
率较低,造成灌区农业用水面临巨大压力。为实现灌区水资源高效、可持续利用,必
须提高灌区的农业用水管理水平。水足迹作为目前水科学研究的热点与前沿课题,为
灌区用水管理提供了一个有效工具。以河套灌区为研究对象,通过分析作物生产水足
迹时空演变过程及影响因素,可为灌区农业用水管理及制定节水农业发展规划等提供
理论依据与基础。本研究在现有水足迹理论的基础上,探讨了作物生产水足迹作为农
业用水评价指标的内涵;其后,针对目前作物生产水足迹量化方法的不足,构建了灌
区尺度作物生产水足迹计算方法,并利用该方法量化了灌区近 50 年 10 种作物生产水
足迹(包括蓝、绿水足迹),分析了河套灌区作物生产水足迹及其蓝、绿水足迹构
成的时空演变过程及特征;最后,采用定性分析与定量分析相结合,初步探讨了
了河套灌区作物生产水足迹的主要影响因素。本研究获得的主要成果如下:
(1 ) 构建了灌区尺度作物生产水足迹计算方法 。
针对现有基于作物需水量的作物生产水足迹计算方法存在的不足,根据水足迹理
论和灌区作物耗水特征,提出了适用于灌区尺度的作物生产水足迹计算方法;该方法
从灌区尺度出发,考虑作物生产过程中的水资源利用过程,在作物生产水足迹量化过
程中,将灌溉水在输、配水以及田间灌水过程中的损失量考虑在内,因而能够较为真
实的反映灌区作物生产过程中的水资源利用情况和灌区农业用水水平。
(2 )近 明确了近 50  年 河套灌区作物生产水足迹 及蓝 、 绿水足迹构成 的时空演变
过程和 特征 。
基于所构建的灌区尺度作物生产水足迹计算方法,对灌区近 50 年来 10 种作物的
生产水足迹进行量化,并分析了其时间演变过程和特征。结果表明:灌区多数作物的
生产水足迹、蓝水足迹和绿水足迹在研究时段内都呈现出明显的下降趋势。由于 20
世纪 60 年代灌区农业生产水平和灌溉条件都处于较低水平,作物单位面积产量较低,
从而导致灌区各作物生产水足迹均较高。随着灌区农业生产水平和水资源利用效率的提高,作物生产水足迹呈下降趋势,其中 20 世纪 80 和 90 年代是灌区作物生产水足
迹下降幅度最大的时段。同时,M-K 趋势检验显示:作物生产蓝水足迹的下降趋势
要比绿水足迹显著。从作物生产水足迹蓝、绿水构成来看,灌区作物生产水足迹中绿
水足迹比例较小,大多数作物生产水足迹中绿水足迹比例小于 15%。
以旗(县)为空间分析单元,计算并分析了灌区 5 个旗(县)10 种作物生产水
足迹及其蓝、绿水足迹构成的空间分布特征。结果显示:受灌区各地气候及生产条件
差异的影响,灌区各旗(县)作物生产水足迹及蓝、绿水足迹构成存在较为明显的空
间分布差异;农业生产水平较高的临河区作物生产水足迹较低,而生产水平较低的磴
口县作物生产水足迹较高;作物生产水足迹中绿水足迹所占比例的空间分布特征与灌
区降水量分布特征基本一致,降水量较大的乌拉特前旗作物生产水足迹中绿水足迹比
例较高;各个旗(县)农业生产和灌溉水平发展的差异性是导致作物生产水足迹(蓝、
绿水足迹)的空间分布发生变化的原因。
(3 ) 探讨了作物生产水足迹的影响因素 , 定量分析了农业生产水平 、 灌溉水平
以及气候 因素 对作物生产水足迹的影响 。
采用定性分析与定量分析相结合,对影响灌区作物生产水足迹的相关因子进行统
计分析,结果显示:气候因素对作物生产水足迹的影响较小,其对作物生产水足迹下
降的综合贡献率仅为 6.90%;而农业生产水平和灌溉水平的提高是驱动灌区作物生产
水足迹下降的主要因素,其综合贡献率达 84.31%,其中化肥的贡献率为 34.89%,机
械动力的贡献率为 17.55%,灌溉水利用系数的贡献率为 31.87%。因此,就河套灌区
而言,灌溉和农业生产水平的提高是驱动作物生产水足迹下降的主要因素。
本研究以河套灌区为研究区域,在建立灌区尺度作物生产水足迹计算方法的基础
上,量化并分析了灌区作物生产水足迹的时空演变过程和特征,初步探讨了作物生产
水足迹的影响因素,本研究可为建立区域水足迹控制标准提供基础,并随着后期研究
的深入,最终为灌区实施最严格的水资源管理制度提供定量化管理的可靠指标体系。
关键词 :水足迹;时空演变;影响因子;河套灌区

Other Abstract

As one of the three biggest irrigation district in China, Hetao irrigation district locates
in the inland arid zone in Northwest China. Due to the decrease of water diversion quota as
well as the low water use efficiency, the agriculture water use is under enormous pressure.
In order to make the water use more efficient and sustainable, the irrigation district should
improve the agriculture water resources management level. Water footprint is the forefront
and hot topic of water resource management research worldwide. The water footprint
concept provides a new approach for assessing water resource utilization (type, amount
and efficiency) in agriculture. Therefore, the application of water footprint in water-saving
agriculture will extend the agricultural water management and evaluation systems. This
dissertation takes Hetao Irrigation District as its research area. Through the study of the
spatial-temporal variation of water footprint of crop production in Hetao Irrigation District,
it will contribute to provide some references for agricultural water resources management
at the irrigation district scale. Firstly, this study discussed the scientific connotation of
water footprint of crop production based on the existing water footprint theory system.
Secondly, in view of shortcoming of existing quantification method, this study put forward
a modified method of quantifying the water footprint of crop production at irrigation
district scale. The loss of irrigation water during the transmission and distribution process
from the water sources to field was taken into account in this modified method. And then
by using this method, this study quantified the water footprint (blue and green water
footprint) of 10 crops in Hetao Irrigation District from 1960 to 2008. Thirdly, the study
analyzed the spatial-temporal variation of water footprint of crop production by using GIS
platform. Finally, the study quantified the driving forces that caused the variation of water
footprint for crop production during the study period by using path and contribution rate  analysis, and it also put forward some control measures and preliminary discussion of the
application of water footprint theory in agricultural water resources management at the
irrigation district scale. The following main conclusions can be drawn:
(1) This study put forward a modified calculation method of water footprint of
crop production at Irrigation District scale.
In view of the shortcoming of existing calculation method based on crop water
requirement, this study presented a modified method for quantifying the water footprint for
crop production. In order to reflect the actual water consumption during the crop
production process, the loss of irrigation water during the transmission and distribution
process from the water sources to field was taken into account. It could reflect the actual
water consumption and water use efficiency of local region. Therefore, it could reflect the
regional agriculture water use efficiency and agricultural production level.
(2) This study analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of water footprint of
crop production and its blue-green components.
Based on the calculation method of water footprint, this study quantified the water
footprint of 10 crops in Hetao Irrigation District in nearly 50 years. Then, it analyzed the
temporal and spatial variation of water footprint and its blue-green components for the 10
crops. Results indicated that most crops had downward trend over the study period. Since
the agricultural production and irrigation project were at a comparatively low level in
1960s in Hetao irrigation district, the crop yield per unit area and irrigation water use
efficiency were relative low. Consequently, the water footprint of crops stayed at
historically high levels. With the improvement of agricultural productivity level and
irrigation system, the crop yield per unit area and irrigation water use efficiency have
obtained great enhancement. Under the combined influence of increasing crop yield per
unit area and agricultural water use efficiency, the water footprint of most crops showed
obvious downward trends. From the perspective of water footprint components, the
proportions of the blue water footprint in total water consumption were relatively high
(more than 80%) in most of the 10 crops, whereas those of the green water footprint were
relatively small (<15.00%).
Taking the county as spatial analysis unit, this study calculated and analyzed the water
footprint of the 10 crops and their blue-green components of the 5 counties in Hetao  Irrigation District. The results showed that the regional differences of water footprint for
the 5 counties were significant. The analysis indicated that spatial differences of climatic
condition, agricultural production and irrigation level leaded to the diversity of water
footprint of crop production among the 5 counties. The high value was located in Linhe
County where with a high agriculture production level. Meanwhile, the Wulate County had
a higher share of green water footprint due to the higher precipitation in Hetao Irrigation
District. Due to the non-synchronized development of agricultural production and
irrigation level among the 5 counties during the study period, the spatial distribution of
water footprint of crop production was changed in each decade.
(3) Through this research, the main influence factors of water footprint for crop
production were determined and quantified.
By combining qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, this study explored the
influence factors of water footprint of crop production. The results showed that the
contribution rate of climatic factors were relatively small. It signified that the climatic
factors were not the dominate factors that cause the decline of water footprint of crop
production during the study period for the total contribution rate of the climatic factors was
only 6.90%, while the total contribution rate of the agricultural inputs factors was 84.31%.
The contribution rates of fertilizer, utilization coefficient of irrigation water and
agricultural machinery were 34.89%, 31.87% and 17.55%, respectively. It suggests that the
water footprint of a crop, to a large extent, is determined by agricultural management
(agricultural inputs) and irrigation level rather than by the agro-climate and its variation
where the crop is grown.
The present study put forward a modified calculation method to quantify the water
footprint of crop. On this basis, this paper calculated the water footprint of major crops in
Hetao irrigation district, China. Then, it evaluated the influencing factors that caused the
variability of crop water footprint during the study period. The results of this study would
contribute to improving the agricultural water management level and providing preparatory
theory for establishing the water footprint control standard. As research continues, we are
aim to provide the scientific and reasonable index system for implementing stringent water
resources management system in future.
Key words: water footprint; spatial-temporal variation; influence factor analysis; Hetao  

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9011
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙世坤. 近 50 年来 河套灌区作物生产水足迹时空演变 过程 研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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