ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
延河流域 植被与 侵蚀 产沙 特征研究
王 志 杰
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor焦菊英
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword植被类型 植被格局 土壤侵蚀针法 侵蚀产沙特征 黄土丘陵沟壑区
Abstract

黄土丘陵沟壑区是黄土高原土壤侵蚀最严重的区域,也是黄河粗泥沙的主要来源
地。而植被是控制水土流失、恢复生态环境的关键因子。自 1999 年退耕还林(草)
工程实施以来,黄土丘陵沟壑区的植被覆盖度显著增加,水土流失明显减轻。但该区
的植被景观恢复到了什么程度?土壤侵蚀是否得到了有效的控制?现阶段流域侵蚀
产沙特征如何?今后水土保持、植被建设和生态恢复的重点区域在哪里?这些科学问
题尚没有明确答案。因此,本研究以黄土丘陵沟壑区延河流域为研究对象,通过对其
从南到北 9 个典型小流域的立地环境和植被格局特征、不同植被类型的土壤侵蚀特征
分析的基础上,结合典型小流域滑坡、崩塌侵蚀和沟道(河道)泥沙淤积的调查,研
究了典型小流域及延河流域的侵蚀产沙特征。主要研究结果如下:
1. 延河流域 9 个典型小流域现阶段的主要植被类型有 33 个植物群系,包括 6 个
人工乔木林群系、2 个人工灌木林群系、4 个自然乔木林群系、6 个自然灌木林群系
和 15 个半灌木草本群系。其中:南部的 3 个小流域有 24 个群系,以自然乔、灌植物
群系分布最广,主要为辽东栎、侧柏、三角槭、丁香和狼牙刺等群系;中部的 3 个小
流域有 19 个群系,以刺槐和铁杆蒿群系为主,茵陈蒿、长芒草、白羊草、狼牙刺、
柠条和沙棘等群系也分布较广;北部的 3 个小流域有 25 个群系,以铁杆蒿群系为主,
刺槐、沙棘、白羊草、茭蒿、长芒草以及茵陈蒿群系也有广泛分布。
2. 人工植被随坡度表现出“随机性”分布特征;自然演替中后期的辽东栎、狼牙刺、
铁杆蒿、茭蒿和白羊草等植物群系主要分布在坡度大于 25°的沟坡,而中前期的茵陈
蒿和长芒草群系主要分布在坡度小于 25°的梁峁坡。白羊草和狼牙刺群系表现出对阳
坡、半阳坡的敏感性,辽东栎和丁香群系主要分布在阴坡或半阴坡,其他植物群系未
表现出明显的坡向敏感性。小流域植被盖度由北到南呈现逐渐增大的趋势,北部平均
植被盖度在 33-40%之间,中部在 38-42%之间,而南部达到 60%以上。
3. 根据侵蚀针的监测结果,14 种主要植物群系的土壤侵蚀强度变化在 805.7
-5149.6t/km 2 .a 之间。自然乔木林植被减蚀能力最强,其次为自然灌木植被,再次为
人工灌丛植被、15 年人工刺槐植被和自然演替中后期的草本植被,而自然演替中前
期的草本植被和 6-8 年人工刺槐植被最弱。4. 延河流域在2013年暴雨条件下,小流域坡沟土壤侵蚀强度均小于2500 t/km 2 .a,
其中北部和南部以微度侵蚀为主,中部以轻度和中度侵蚀为主。9 个典型小流域中度
及以上侵蚀均主要分布在人工乔灌林植被或自然演替中前期的草本植被覆盖的沟坡。
5. 2013 年暴雨条件下,延河流域各小流域的滑坡、崩塌侵蚀严重,表现为南部最
大(7357.7t/km 2 ),其次为中部(3706.9 t/km 2 ),北部最小(1678.1 t/km 2 )。
6. 延河流域 2013 年总侵蚀产沙量约 0.27 亿 t,主河道总淤积量约 0.04 亿 t,甘谷
驿水文站输沙量计算值为 0.23 亿 t(实测值为 0.24 亿 t)。其中:平均坡沟土壤侵蚀强
度为 1614.5t/km 2 ,呈现中部强、北部次之、南部较小的趋势;平均滑坡、崩塌侵蚀
强度为 3354.2t/km 2 ,表现出由南到北逐渐减小的趋势。侵蚀产沙强度大于 5000 t/km 2
的区域主要分布在西川河流域、南川河流域和蟠龙川流域的部分地区以及杏子河和延
河的上游。
7. 现阶段延河流域坡沟良好的植被覆盖已能有效抵御暴雨侵蚀,在特大暴雨条件
下重力侵蚀占主导地位。因此,今后应在保护现有坡面退耕成果的前提下,加强沟间
地降雨径流的蓄排措施,减小坡面径流下沟的影响,防止沟坡重力侵蚀,控制沟蚀发
展,减轻沟道冲刷,以更有效地防止水土流失,促进秀美山川的实现。
关键词:植被类型;植被格局;土壤侵蚀针法;侵蚀产沙特征;黄土丘陵沟壑区

Other Abstract

The Loess Hilly-gully region is the most serious soil erosion area on the Loess Plateau,
and is the major sediment source place of the Yellow River. Vegetation is the key factor to
control soil and water loss and recover eco-environment. Since the implementation of the
“Grain for Green” project at 1999, the vegetation coverage has increased obviously, and
the soil and water loss has decreased also. However, it is still not clear that which stage of
the vegetation pattern on the Loess hilly-gully region has recovered? Whether the soil
erosion has been controlled? What is the focus place of the soil and water conservation,
vegetation rebuilding and ecological restoration in future? Therefore, in the present study,
the Yanhe watershed on the Loess hilly-gully region was selected as the research object,
the habits environment, the vegetation pattern, the soil erosion characters of different
vegetation types were studied, and the amount of channel deposition and the landslide and
collapsing erosion were survey, based on the above researches, the erosion sediment yield
characters of small watersheds and Yanhe watershed were analyzed. The main results as
follows:
1. There are 33 vegetation formations in the 9 typical small watersheds of Yanhe
watershed at the present stage including 6 artificial forest formations, 2 artificial bush
formations, 4 natural forest formations, 6 natural bush formations and 15
subshrub-herbaceous formations. Among there are 24 vegetation formations in the
southern area with the natural forest and bush vegetation formations such as Quercus
liaotungensis formation, Platycladus orientalis formation, Acer buergerianum formation,
Syringa pekinensis formation, and Sophora viciifolia formation distributed widely. There
are 19 vegetation formations in the middle area with the Robinia psendoacacia formation
and Artemisia gmelinii formation dominantly distributed, and other formations such as
Artemisia capillaris formation, Stipa bungeana formation, Bothriochloa ischaemun
formation, S. viciifolia formation, Caragana intermedia formation, and Hippophae  rhamnoides formation widely distributed also. There are 25 vegetation formations in the
northern area with the A. gmelinii formation dominantly distributed, and the R.
psendoacacia formation, H. rhamnoides formation, B. ischaemun formation, S. bungeana
formation, A. capillaris formation, and Artemisia giraldii formation widely distributed.
2. The distribution of the artificial vegetation in the slope displayed randomness
characteristic. The Q. liaotungensis formation, S. viciifolia formation, A. gmelinii
formation, A. giraldii formation, and B. ischaemun formation mainly distributed on the
gully slope, and the formation of the early stage of succession, such as A. capillaris
formation and S. bungeana formation, mainly distributed on the Liang/Mao slope. The B.
ischaemun formation and S. viciifolia formation mainly distributed on the south-facing
slopes, the Q. liaotungensis formation and S. pekinensis formation mainly distributed on
the north-facing slopes, and the other formations were not obvious sensibility for aspects.
The vegetation coverage of small watersheds displayed increasing trend from southern area
to northern area ranged from 33.3% to 40.3% in the northern area, and ranged from 38.1%
to 42.5% in the middle area, and exceeded 60% in the southern area.
3. According to the erosion pin plots analysis, the soil erosion intensity of 14
vegetaiton types was ranged from 805.7 t/km 2 .a to 5149.6t/km 2 .a. The ability of vegetation
to control erosion was displayed as the natural forest vegetiaton larger than natural bush
vegetiaton, than artificial bush vegetation, the herbaceous vegetation of the late stage of
succession and 15-years artificial R. psendoacacia formation, and than the herbaceous
vegetation of the early stage of succession and 6-8-years artificial R. psendoacacia
formation.
4. In the condition of rainstorm in 2013, the average soil erosion intensity of all small
watersheds were below 2500t/km 2 .a, The erosion intensity was mainly in the category of
slightly erosion in the small watersheds of the southern and northern areas, and was mainly
in the category of mild and moderate erosion in the small watersheds of the middle area. In
the all 9 small watersheds, the area which the erosion intensity was above 2500 t/km 2 .a
was mainly distributed in the gully slope covered by the artificial forest-bush vegetation
and the herbaceous vegetation of the early stage of succession.
5. Due to the influence of the rainstorm in 2013, the landslide and collapsing erosion
in the small watersheds was serious. The average landslide and collapsing erosion intensity
was reached 7357.66 t/km 2 in the southern area, was 3706.93 t/km 2 in the middle area, and
was 1678.04 t/km 2 in the northern area. 6. In 2013, the erosion yield and sediment deposition of Yanhe watershed was about
0.27×10 8 t and 0.04×10 8 t, respectively, and the calculated value of the sediment discharge
of Ganguyi hydrologic control area was about 0.23×10 8 t with the measured value of
0.24×10 8 t. The hillslope-gully erosion of Yanhe watershed with the average of 1614.5t/km 2
was most serious in the middle area, then in the northern area, and the slightest in the
southern area. The landslide and collapsing erosion of Yanhe watershed with the average of
3354.2t/km 2 displayed decreasing trend from southern to northern. The area which the
erosion intensity was above 5000t/km 2 was mainly distributed in the sub-region of
Xichuanhe watershed, Nanchuanhe watershed and Panlongchuan watershed, and the upper
reaches of Xingzihe watershed and Yanhe watershed.
7. At the present stage, good vegetation cover of the hillslope-gully slope could control
rainstorm erosion effectively. The erosion types of the sediment source of Yanhe watershed
was dominated by gravitational erosion in the condtion of rainstorm. Therefore, in the
premise of protecting the achievements of the “Grain for Green” project, it should be
strengthen the construction of the storage and drainage measures of inter-gully, reduce the
slope runoff flowing down the gully, prevent the gravitational erosion of gully slope, and
control the gully erosion. Then, it might effectively prevent soil erosion, and promote the
realization of landscape engineering in future.
Key Words: vegetation pattern; vegetation types; soil erosion pins; erosion sediment
yield; Loess hilly-gully region 

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9010
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 志 杰. 延河流域 植被与 侵蚀 产沙 特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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