ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
西北旱区农业水土资源利用分区及其匹配特征研究
耿庆玲
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吴普特
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword农业水土资源 干湿气候 分区指标 匹配 西北旱区
Abstract

水土资源是农业生产的核心资源,也是粮食生产的战略资源, 其态势关系到我国粮
食生产的安全性和稳定性。近年来,我国由人口增长和经济发展带来的水土资源需求与
其本身的稀缺性、有限性之间的矛盾越来越大,使得水土资源管理成为全世界关注的对
象和焦点问题,尤其对于水土资源利用问题较为严重的干旱地区更是受到国内外学者的
普遍重视。西北地区地域辽阔,光热土资源丰富,是中国重要的粮食生产后备基地。但
该区地形复杂,地貌类型多样,沙漠、丘陵、平原、山地等多种类型并存,区域间自然
地理分异明显,社会经济发展水平差异较大。在这种情况下,认识西北旱区的自然地理
分异特征及农业水土资源利用现状,成为实现农业水土资源高效可持续利用的重要前提
和基础,对于制定合理的水土资源管理措施和规划方案具有重要的指导意义。
本研究以充分利用现有资料和技术为支撑条件,通过结合地理学、气候学、农学、
生态学和统计学等相关理论和方法,并综合运用调查研究、定性分析与定量研究相结合
以及理论分析与实践相结合等方法,分析西北旱区的干湿气候特征及农业水土资源的利
用现状,在进行西北旱区地理范围重新界定的基础上,对西北旱区农业水土资源利用状
况进行分区,识别不同区域农业水土资源利用的特征、方向,确立西北旱区农业水土资
源利用的分区方案;同时,建立能够反映区域农业水土资源丰缺程度和匹配特征的计算
评价方法,分析西北旱区农业水土资源的匹配状况,探讨实现不同分区农业水土资源有
效匹配的途径和措施,从而为农业水土资源管理方案和高效利用模式的制定提供理论基
础。主要的研究内容及结论如下:
(1 ) 对西北旱区的地理范围进行了重新界定 。
基于以往西北旱区地理范围研究中的缺陷问题,以近 30 年(1981-2010)气象观测
资料为基础,通过选取降水量、蒸发量、相对湿度、降水变率等多个变量在内的干湿气
候区划因子,运用因子聚类法从统计学角度对西北干湿气候特征进行研究。并基于对旱
区概念及其基本类型的认识,对西北旱区地理范围进行了界定,同时将其与传统分类方法进行对比,分析二者之间的区别及其原因所在。结果显示:主要的地形地貌成为不同
干湿气候类型区间的重要分界标志;因子聚类法能较好反映区域的干湿气候特征,有效
识别地形地貌等在区域干湿气候区划中的作用。研究认为旱区是指以气候干旱为基本特
征的资源型缺水地区,包括了干旱、半干旱和半湿润易旱区三种干湿气候类型。西北旱
区的范围包括了新疆、青海、甘肃和宁夏四省的全部,陕西关中平原与陕北高原及内蒙
古锡林郭勒盟以西地区,总面积为 3.69×10 6 km 2 ,占全国国土面积的 38.4%。
(2 ) 建立了农业水土资源利用分区的指标框架结构 。
以农业水土资源利用分区的基本理论内涵为基础,考虑农业水土资源供、用、耗、
需等特点,将供需理论与 DPSIR(Driving Force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response)模型相
结合,建立了以供给能力、需求水平、开发利用条件、利用现状和限制因子五种要素特
征为基本层次的指标框架结构,并以内蒙古巴彦淖尔为例对该指标框架的合理性进行了
验证和分析。结果表明:受黄河引水、取水条件和阴山山脉的影响,巴彦淖尔市农业水
土资源利用由西向东、由南向北呈现明显的区域差异特征,区域农业水土资源利用方式、
方向的差异与水资源的供给条件有密切联系。通过调查和分析,结合巴彦淖尔市的实际
情况,表明所建立的分区指标体系是合理的,该指标框架能够指导农业水土资源利用分
区指标体系的建立和分区特征的识别。
(3 ) 识别了西北旱区农业水土资源利用的分区特征 。
基于所建立的分区指标框架,考虑指标筛选的基本原则,以市级(区)为基本单元,
确定各分区指标的数值。采用主成分分析与系统聚类相结合的方法,建立农业水土资源
利用的分区方案,结合实地调查和综合研究,对分区结果进行分析和比较,研究各分区
农业水土资源利用的特征及规律性。
结果显示西北旱区农业水土资源利用主要表现为四种类型的分区特征:以农为主的
灌溉农业区、农牧结合的旱作农业区、不具备农业发展优势的工矿区以及以林牧业为主
农、林、牧兼营的高山、丘陵沟壑区。各分区指标与综合分区因子之间的相关性分析结
果表明,耕地灌溉率和单位耕地面积化肥用量两个影响因子在区域农业水土资源开发利
用中发挥着重要作用。其中在水资源供给条件相对优越的情况下,区域农业水土资源的
利用向灌溉农业和林果业方向发展;在水资源短缺的情况下则形成了旱作农业的耕作方
式,以及以工矿业代替农业主要地位的区域生产发展类型。单位耕地面积化肥用量在
55kg/亩时,农业水土资源的综合产出水平最高。综合结果表明水肥管理是提高西北旱区
农业水土资源综合产出水平的关键和重要途径。
分区结果也显示,灌溉农业主要集中在水资源供给充足且土地肥沃的盆地、平原地区,而对于高山、丘陵、沟壑峡谷等地形导致的耕地资源匮乏区,则形成了以林果业为
特色的农业生产类型;水资源缺乏情况下,宜农的地区形成了旱作生产的耕作方式,而
土地贫瘠但矿产资源丰富的地区,在比较优势影响下,则形成了以工矿业为主的区域经
济发展特征。表明农业水土资源利用类型、方向与土地资源的肥沃程度关系密切。表明
区位优势、资源优势以及自然地域的分异在农业水土资源的开发利用中发挥着重要作
用,引导着水土资源向不同的方向发展。
(4 ) 建立了农业水土资源匹配 和资源短缺评价 的 方法 ,分析了西北旱区农业水土资源
空间 匹配的特征,探讨了实现不同分区农业水土资源有效匹配的措施和途径 。
从广义农业水资源角度出发,对西北旱区农业水土资源的空间匹配特征以及蓝、绿
水资源与农业水土资源匹配指数的关系进行了分析,并结合资源当量系数,建立了衡量
农业水土资源丰缺程度的评价方法。结果表明:西北旱区农业水土资源匹配指数较高的
地区主要分布在气候极为干旱的灌溉农业区,而较低的地区主要分布在以雨养农业或牧
草业为主的旱作区,且蓝、绿水之间比例越大的地区,农业水土资源匹配指数越高。其
中蓝水资源量与农业水土资源匹配指数成正相关的线性关系;绿水资源在 350mm 左右
时,农业水土资源匹配指数最低。
以旱作农业为主的半干旱气候区,以及降水资源较为丰富的半湿润易旱区或高山融
水资源相对充足地区均表现为耕地资源的严重短缺状态;而以极干旱和干旱气候类型为
主的地区,不仅农业水土资源匹配指数较高,农业水土资源当量系数也基本在 1.5 以上,
形成了严重的水资源短缺区。结果表明了西北旱区农业水土资源处于极不平衡的状态,
水资源的形成区与消耗区在空间上存在严重的分离现象。以此为基础,结合农业水土资
源利用的分区特征,探讨了实现不同类型区农业水土资源有效匹配的途径和措施。
关键词:农业水土资源;干湿气候;分区指标;匹配;西北旱区

Other Abstract

Water and land resources (WLR) are two of the most vital resources in agricultural and
food production systems. The situation of WLR is tied up with security and stability of food
production in China. Recently, the conflict between demands of WLR due to the population
growth and economic development and its inherent characteristics with scarcity and limitation
is increasing, so that WLR management has been paid more attention by scientists,especially
in arid areas where issues related to WLR utilization are more obvious.
The scope of arid areas in Northwest China (NW) is vast. It has abundant resources of
light, solar and land, and thus is an important reserve base of food production in China.
However, the landscape is characterized by a unique morphological complexity consisting of
mountains, basins, plain, deserts, and rivers in NW. Moreover, regional differentiation
characteristics including geographical and socio-economic differences are obvious.
Correspondingly, identifying and understanding geographical characteristics and the
conditions of agricultural water and land resources utilization (AWLRU) is the precondition
for the goal of achieving the effective and sustainable utilization of AWLR. It can contribute
to formulating the more effective measures and planning for AWLR management.
Based on the current data and technology/tools, this study identified dry/wet climatic
zones by applying theories and methods in the fields of geography, climatology and statistics,
and the scope of arid areas of NW was delimited. Next, we developed a general framework
for designing and selecting indicators of AWLRU zoning, and then established the zoning
scheme of AWLRU in arid areas of NW. Then, a systematic method was advanced to help to
understand the matching and scarcity characteristics of AWLR. Based on it, we analyzed the  matching situation of AWLR in arid areas of NW, and further discussed measures for
achieving reasonable matching situation of AWLR. The final goal of this study was to provide
the theoretical basis for proposing and establishing the effective and sustainable utilization
mode of ALWR. The following main conclusions can be drawn:
(1) This study delimited the scope of arid areas of NW.
In view of the shortcoming and disagreement on the scope of arid areas of NW in
previous studies, we identified the dry/wet climatic characteristics by applying the
multi-variable statistical analysis based on the last 30 years (1981–2010) in this study.
Meanwhile, it made a further definition and explanation on the concept of arid areas and its
types. Based on this, we defined the scope of arid areas of NW, and analyzed differences
between the current and traditional methods. Results showed that major terrain features were
important components of boundaries among different climate regions. It indicated that
divisional boundaries appeared to be greatly influenced by natural features or barriers
between regions.
Meanwhile, the concept of arid areas was defined as water-deficient areas induced by
resource scarcity and characterized by climatological drought. Its types included arid,
semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions. The scope of arid areas of NW is: the whole area of four
provinces, including Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia, and regions of Guanzhong Plain,
north Shaanxi and the Inner Mongolia Plateau. The total area is 3.69×10 6 km 2 , accounting for
38.4% of China.
(2) This study developed a general framework for designing and selecting
indicators of AWLRU zoning.
Based on the understanding of related theories and meaning of AWLRU, we designed the
framework including five attributes or layers in AWLRU system by combining the
supply–demand (SD) theory with the DPSIR (Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response)
model. They are supply capacity, demand level, exploration and utilization level, utilization
status and limiting factors, respectively. Bayan Nur of Inner Mongolia was selected as the
case study to understand the application of the proposed framework and confirm its
reasonability. Results indicated that divisions of AWLRU had obvious differences depending
on the effects of the Yellow River and Yinshan Mountains. Divisions were drawn clearly from
west to east and from south to north. It indicated that the AWLRU zoning was bound up with  water supply. The case study demonstrated the practicality and reasonability of the proposed
framework. The proposed framework could guide the establishment of indicators and
identification of characteristics of AWLR zoning.
(3) This study identified the zoning characteristics of AWLRU in arid areas of NW.
Based on the principles of selecting indicators, this paper took cities as basic units to
define values of zoning indicators. By combining the Principle Components Analysis (PCA)
and Cluster Analysis (CA), the zoning scheme of AWLRU in arid areas of NW was
established. Meanwhile, according to investigation and comprehensive analysis, we
understood and compared the characteristics of AWLRU, and summed up the basic laws on its
spatial pattern and utilization directions. Results indicated that four types of divisions of
AWLRU were identified: irrigated farming regions, dry-farming agricultural regions with the
comprehensive characteristics of farming and pasture, the industrial and mining districts with
non-advantages for developing agriculture, and mountains and hills areas depending on
forestry and livestock farming but also including agriculture. Among zoning indicators, the
rate of irrigated arable and fertilizer consumption per arable land were two most important
factors affecting the development mode, direction and outputs of AWLR.
Results also indicated that irrigated farming regions mainly distributed in basins and
plains where water supply is sufficient and land is fertile, whereas agriculture was developed
towards the direction of forestry and livestock farming in regions with mountains, hills and
ravines due to the low availability of land resources. Under the condition of water scarcity, the
arable region was developed as the dry-farming cultivated mode. In regions that land resource
is poor but mineral resources are abundance, regional economic development was dominated
by industry and mineral industry due to the effects of comparative advantages. It further
indicated that location advantage, resource advantage and geographical differentiation played
an important role in the process of development and utilization of AWLR.
(4) The matching and scarcity characteristics of ALWR were measured and
evaluated. Measures and ways for achieving the reasonable matching situation of AWLR
were put forwards in this study.
From the view of generalized agricultural water resources, we analyzed the spatial
matching characteristics of AWLR and relationship between the components of agricultural  water resources and matching index of AWLR. By combining resource equivalency analysis,
we established an evaluation method measuring the severity of resources shortage. Results
indicated that the matching index of AWLR was high in irrigated farming regions with arid
climate, and it is low in dry-farming regions characterized by rain-fed agriculture and
livestock farming. Besides, the higher the ratio of blue and green water is, the higher the
matching index of AWLR is. Thereinto, there was a positive correlation between blue water
and matching index of AWLR. When green water resource is about 350mm, the matching
index of AWLR is lowest.
There is a severe shortage of cultivated land in semi-arid climate region dominated by
dry farming, dry sub-humid region with rich precipitation and regions with sufficient melt
water resources. The matching index of AWLR and equivalent coefficient of AWLR were
higher in regions in extremely arid zone and arid zone, which is severe water shortage region.
It indicated that the distribution of AWLR was extremely uneven. It presented serious
separation between forming region and water-consumption region. Based on it, measures and
ways for achieving the reasonable matching situation of AWLR were put forwards.
Key words: Agricultural water and land resources; Wet/dry climate; Indicators; Matching;
Arid areas of NW

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9009
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
耿庆玲. 西北旱区农业水土资源利用分区及其匹配特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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