ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
薄土坡耕地水土流失防治工程措施效应研究
陈磊
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor谢永生
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword薄土坡耕地 水土流失 工程措施 水土保持效应
Abstract

全国坡耕地总面积达 3.59 亿亩,约占全国耕地总量的 1/5,坡耕地水土流失面
积占全国水土流失面积的 6.7%,土壤侵蚀量却占全国总量的 28.3%,是水土流失的主
要策源地。其中,北方土石山区、西南土石山区、南方红壤区及青藏高原区土壤特征
都以土层薄为基本特点。这些坡耕地耕作土层比较浅薄,不适宜修筑高标准的水平梯
田,采用传统的水土保持耕作法用于控制其水土流失,但普遍存在措施防治标准低、
随意性大、防治效果差等问题。急需研究发一种一劳永逸的工程治理工程技术,以解
决长期困扰我国坡耕地治理难点问题。
本文依据耕地坡面水土流失从面蚀到沟蚀的发展、演变和危害特征的基础上,提
出了治理薄土坡耕地水土流失工程措施技术原理和技术思路。技术原理是依据坡面土
壤侵蚀由溅蚀、面蚀到沟蚀的发生演变规律(沟蚀土壤侵蚀量是溅蚀、面蚀侵蚀量的
2-3 倍,占坡面侵蚀量的 50-70%),且存在临界坡长的基本特点,设计田间工程措施
容许面蚀、扼制沟蚀的发生,将坡面土壤侵蚀控制在一定容许的范围之内。技术思路:
(1)针对坡面径流实施工程“拦、滤、排”的思路,设计了直坡型田间拦挡壤中排
水技术和波状坡型田间工程拦挡壤中排水技术;(2)依据坡型,结合坡面径流特点实
施工程“截、渗或截、渗、排”的思路,提出了直坡型石坎截坡开阶蓄渗技术;(3)
针对“滤”不能稳定,时间久效率下降,维护困难的问题,提出了对坡面径流泥沙实
施“拦、淀、排”的思路,提出了波状坡型浆砌石淀排拦挡壤中排水技术。
通过设置试验径流小区对试验方案的水土保持效应进行评价,根据 2 年的试验观
测结果对各技术进行综合评价,主要结论如下:
1、直坡型田间拦挡壤中排水技术在坡耕地临界坡长处,设置人工高入渗层(碎
石层)和地下安全排水设施(双壁波纹管),安全将壤中径流排出,保障农田安全。
2012 年径流总量为 1.296m
3 ,是常规耕作年径流量的 1.49 倍;侵蚀总量为 99.02kg,
是常规耕作年侵蚀量的 1.77 倍;2013 年径流量为 3.58m
3 ,是常规耕作的 2.08 倍;
侵蚀量为 669.93kg,是常规耕作的 1.92 倍。该措施在试验初期能够很好的拦截径流
并排出地块,减少径流对坡面的冲刷,但是,随着时间的推移,设置的碎石过滤层孔
隙容易受到淤泥累积,导致入渗率变小,下渗的径流急剧减少,导致坡面土壤表层受到径流的冲刷强度变大,从而引起侵蚀强度的变大。所以,该措施基本是不成功的,
需要另行设计。
2、直坡型石坎截坡开阶蓄渗技术在坡耕地临界坡长处实施石坎截坡,坎下设计
反坡库容,储水增渗,能够有效的控制沟蚀发生,降低径流对的坡面冲刷,促使水分
入渗。2012 年径流总量为 0.538m
3 ,是常规耕作年径流量的 61.69%,侵蚀总量为
99.02kg,是常规耕作年侵蚀量的 6.13%;2013 年径流量为 0.95m
3 ,是常规耕作的
81.89%,侵蚀量为 21.23kg,是常规耕作的 2.4%。该技术能够有效的解决我国北方坡
面多由超渗径流对坡面造成的冲刷,同时针对南方坡多由蓄满径流对坡面造成的冲
刷,提出了坎下设排水沟的试验设计,预期解决该技术设计的南北方适宜性问题。
3、波形坡田间工程拦挡滤渗壤中排水技术对坡面径流进行工程拦挡,缓解了径
流的流速和冲刷强度,大量泥沙沉积在工程前迎水面,水流通过碎石层对泥沙进一步
过滤,然后通过地下暗管排出田块,减少了径流的形成,降低了侵蚀强度。2012 年
径流总量为 0.01m
3 ,是对照小区的 2.73%,侵蚀总量为 0.03kg,是对照小区的 7.09%;
2013 年径流量为 1.82m
3 ,是对照小区的 39.52%,侵蚀量为 126.21kg,是对照小区的
49.16%。该措施在蓄水拦沙方面具有很好的效果,是一项有发展前景的工程措施。
4、波形坡浆砌石拦挡淀排技术在临界坡长处实施浆砌石拦挡,浆砌石坎将坡谷
汇集的水流拦挡以降低水流速度,使水流中所携带的泥沙得以沉淀,然后利用嵌置在
浆砌石内的不同高度的斜向上排水管将上层清液排入壤中暗管,进而将清水排出坡
面,使泥沙沉积在石坎正下方。2013 年径流总量为 0.18m
3 ,是对照小区的 2.48%,侵
蚀总量为 0.89kg,是对照小区的 0.15%。该措施能够有效的降低坡面径流冲刷,沉淀
泥沙,减少侵蚀。
5、开展了主要工程治理技术的造价分析。实际修建石坎截坡措施时,如坡面坡
度 10°、反坡坡度为 5°,该措施的成本为 929 元/亩,比普通石坎梯田节省 78.74%。
实际修建波形坡浆砌石淀排技术时,坎间距按 15m 计算,全面布设每亩总长为 44.4m,
平均每亩造价为 1887 元,比普通石坎梯田要节省 56.81%。
关键词:薄土坡耕地;水土流失;工程措施;水土保持效应

Other Abstract

The slope farmland of the whole country has a total area of 359 million Mu, which
accounts for 1/5 of the total farmland. The soil and water loss area of slope farmland
account for just 6.7% of the total soil and water loss area, but the erosion amount
accounted for 28.3% of the country's total erosion amount. The slope farmland is the main
source of soil and water loss. Among them, the basic soil characteristics of the rock-soil
mountainous region of north China, the rock-soil mountainous region of southwest China ,
southern red soil region of south China and the qinghai-tibet plateau are with thin soil layer.
Because of the thin layer, those slope farmland is not suitable for building a high standard
of level terrace, the traditional way to control soil and water loss of thin layer slope
farmland is using farming method , but those methods had some disadvantage such as low
standard, high casualness and poor effects. A kind of once for all engineering technology is
in urgent need to solve the difficult problem which had plagued China's for a long time.
According to the characteristics of development, evolution and harm of slope erosion
from surface erosion to gully erosion, we came out with the basic technical principle and
technical ideas to solve soil and water loss of thin slope farmland. Technical principle is
based on the development and evolution law of slope soil erosion from the occurrence of
splash erosion and surface erosion to gully erosion ( gully erosion of the soil erosion
amount is 2-3 times of surface and splash erosion amount, and it account for 50-70% of the
total slope erosion amount) and the basic characteristics of critical slope length, the field
engineering measures which allow surface erosion and reduce gully erosion were designed
to control soil erosion amount at a certain range. Technical ideas: (1) According to idea of
implementation of "block, filter, drainage " to the project slope runoff train, we designed
the field block and water soil discharge technology for wave-slope soil type and field block
and underground drainage technology for straight slope; (2) On the basis of slope type and  combining with the characteristics of slope runoff implementation project of “cutting,
permeability(or cutting), drainage”, we put forward the rock wall cutting slope and
permeability of rainfall technology for straight slope type; (3) In order to overcome the
instability and maintenance difficulties of “filter” technology, we proposed the idea of
“block, sedimentation, drainage” and put forward the cement laid stone masonry block and
sedimentation and underground drainage technology.
The experimental runoff plots were set to evaluate the effect of soil and water
conservation, a comprehensive evaluation of all the technologies was made according to
the result of two years’ observation. The main conclusions are as follows:
1. As the field block and underground drainage technology for straight slope
designed, artificial high infiltration (gravel) layer and underground drainage facilities
(double-wall corrugated pipe) were set up at critical slope of straight slope field to safely
discharge runoff and ensure the security of the field. In 2012, the total runoff was 1.296 m 3 ,
it was 1.49 times of the conventional tillage annual runoff; Erosion amount was 99.02 kg,
it was 1.77 times of that in conventional tillage erosion; In 2013, the runoff was 3.58 m 3 , it
was 2.08 times of the conventional tillage; Erosion amount is 669.93 kg, it was 1.92 times
of conventional tillage. The measures were effective to intercept and discharge runoff and
reduce the erosion caused by the runoff at the beginning of the test, however, with the
passage of time, the gravel filter pore was blocked with silt, as results, the infiltration rate
was down and the runoff infiltration reduced sharply. This lead to a bigger erosion
intensity caused by runoff. So this measure is not successful and should be redesigned.
2. As the rock wall cutting slope and permeability of rainfall technology for straight
slope type designed, rock wall was set up at the critical slope of straight slope field and the
reverse slope was set up just below the rock wall to shape a capacity to contain runoff. This
can effectively reduce the formation of gully erosion and the erosion amount as well.
In 2012, the annual runoff volume was 0.538 m 3 , it was 61.69% of the conventional tillage.
The erosion amount was 99.02 kg, it was just 6.13% of conventional tillage erosion; In
2013, the runoff volume was 0.95 m 3 , it was 81.89% of conventional tillage, The erosion
amount was 21.23 kg, which is just 2.4% of conventional tillage. The technology can
effectively reduce the slope erosion which most of them were caused by super infiltration
runoff in the north of China, at the same time, in view of the slope erosion caused by filling  up runoff in the south of China, we proposed the ditch drainage on the reverse slope
experiment design to solve the problem of suitability in different place in China.
3. The cement laid stone masonry block and sedimentation and underground drainage
technology for wave slope has a very good effect on water storage and sand block, it is an
engineering measure with good prospects. In 2012, the total runoff volume was 0.01 m 3 ,
which was just 2.73% of the control plot. The erosion amount was 0.03 kg, which was just
7.09% of the control plot; In 2013, the total runoff was 1.82 m 3 , which was 39.52% of the
control plot, the erosion amount was 126.21 kg, which was 49.16% of the control plot.
This technology can reduce the speed of runoff and the rate of erosion through block of
runoff. Most of the sand carried by runoff sediment before the cement laid stone masonry
wall and water flow was discharged out of field through underground drainage tubes after
filtered by gravel layer. As a result, the formation of runoff and erosion rate was both
reduced.
4. The mortar-laid-stone interception was launched in critical slope length of
Waveform slope mortar-laid-stone works interception slope Precipitation and drainage
technique , pooling of water to reduced the water flow speed, leaving the sediment carried
by stream to precipitation, and then use the drain which is designed in different height of
inclined upward the supernatant fluid into soil drainage tubes, and the water discharge
slope, the sediment deposition in the cross wall directly. The runoff volume in 2013 is 0.18
m3, is 2.48% of the control plot, erosion amount is 0.89 kg, is 0.15% of the control plot.
The measures can effectively reduce the slope runoff erosion, precipitation and sediment,
reduce erosion.
5. The cost analysis of mature technology testing scheme was launched. The actual
construction of cross wall cut slope measures, such as slope grade 10 °, reverse slope 5 °,
the cost of the measure is ¥929 per acre, saved 78.74% compared to traditional rock ridge
terrace. When actually building waveform-slope slurry masonry precipitation and drainage
technology, distance calculated at 15 m, layout overall length of 44.4 m per acre, the
average cost is 1887 yuan per acre, save 56.81% compared to traditional rock ridge terrace.
Keywords: thin layered sloping farmland; soil and water loss; Engineering Measures;
Soil and Water Conservation Effect

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9007
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈磊. 薄土坡耕地水土流失防治工程措施效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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