ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
渭河流域典型水库淤积及其对径流输沙的影响
赵玉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor穆兴民
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword径流量 输沙量 水库淤积 淤积率经验模型 渭河流域
Abstract

水库作为调节河流水沙、蓄水兴利的重要措施,在缓解我国工程性缺水的同时对
河流径流和泥沙产生了重大影响。本文借助变差系数、偏态系数、Pearson 相关分析、
双累积曲线法以及淤积率经验模型等,系统分析渭河流域水库建设对河流径流、输沙
过程的影响机制,采用水库淤积量估算方法揭示渭河流域水库蓄水拦沙对河流径流量
和输沙量的影响,为水沙调度提供理论依据。结论如下:
(1)严重的水土流失导致水库淤积严重。据测定,巴家嘴水库 1960~2004 年共
淤积泥沙4.35亿t;冯家山水库1974~1993年共淤积泥沙0.93亿t;羊毛湾水库1973~
2005 年共淤积泥沙 2187.5 万 t;黑河金盆水库和石头河水库淤积较少。依据水库淤积
率经验模型估算得知,渭河流域 46 座中型水库 2001~2011 年淤积泥沙总量为 2363.6
万 t。
(2)从年内变化特征看,巴家嘴水库入库水沙年内分配很不均匀,水沙集中分
布于 7~9 月,且沙量集中分布特征更明显。巴家嘴水库汛期径流量占全年的 52.4%,
输沙量占全年的 82.2%。水库蓄水运用后使水库下游水文站径流量和输沙量年内分配
趋于均匀化。水库下游沿程站点多年平均输沙量在水库修建后同水库修建前相比,其
降低幅度随着离水库距离的增加而减小。毛家河站输沙量从 1956~1959 年的 1.9195
亿 t,下降到 1960~1987 年的 0.2486 亿 t,降幅为 87.1%;杨家坪站输沙量从 1956~
1959 年的 1.1005 亿 t,下降到 1960~1987 年的 0.5739 亿 t,降幅为 47.8%;张家山
站输沙量从 1956~1959 年的 3.5468 亿 t,下降到 1960~1987 年的 2.3610 亿 t,降幅
为 33.4%。
(3)1950~2008 年渭河流域径流量和输沙量随时间呈显著下降趋势。由渭河流
域张家山、状头和华县 3 站径流-输沙双累积过程线知,3 站输沙量均发生了趋势线变
化,说明除径流量的变化对输沙量产生影响外,人类活动是渭河流域输沙量变化趋势
发生改变的主要原因。同时 3 站径流-输沙双累积曲线的转折点同水库下闸蓄水的时
间相对应。借助张家山、状头、华县 3 站径流-输沙双累积曲线,对 3 站径流-输沙双
累积曲线最后一个阶段的累积输沙量的变化进行估算,求得:2001~2008 年无降水影响时张家山站累积减沙量约为 4.52 亿 t;2003~2008 年无降水影响时状头站的累积
减沙量约为 5.78 亿 t;2001~2008 年无降水影响时华县站的累积减沙量约为 11.24 亿
t。
关键词:径流量;输沙量;水库淤积;淤积率经验模型;渭河流域

Other Abstract

It is extremely uneven for spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in
China. The reservoirs are the main water conservancy measures, which can be used to
adjust the river’s runoff and sediment discharge, as well as storage water resources. By the
reservoir group, we can relief our country’s engineering water shortage. At the same time,
the reservoirs have great influence on the river’s runoff and sediment yield. In this study,
we make use of the following methods, such as the coefficient of variation, coefficient of
skewers, Pearson correlation analysis, cumulative curve method, the deposition rate of
empirical mode method, and so on. At first, we described the reservoir construction
situation in Weihe river basin. Subsequently, we elaborated the influencing mechanism of
reservoirs to river’s runoff and sediment discharge process. In the end, we estimated the
reservoir sediment deposition in Weihe river basin. On the basis of calculated reservoir
sediment deposition, we described the effect of reservoir water storage and sediment
intercept to river runoff and sediment discharge. The above incidence can provide
theoretical basis for water and sediment regulation. The results are as follows:
(1) The serious soil erosion caused reservoir sedimentation. The annual sedimentation
of Bajiazui, Fengjiashan, Yangmaowan and Shitouhe reservoir is 0.0988×10 8 t, 0.0491×10 8 t,
68.3574×10 4 t, 3.12×10 4 t, respectively. Based on the reservoir sedimentation rate empirical
mode method, we find that the middle-sized reservoirs’ total sediment deposition is
0.23636×10 8  t from 2001 to 2011 of Weihe River basin. The earliestreservoir in Weihe
River basin is Wangjiawan Reservoir, which was built in 1956. The largest reservoir in
Weihe River basin is Bajiazui Reservoir, which was built in 1960.
(2) The input runoff and sediment distribution of Bajiazui Reservoir is uneven during
the year. Runoff and sediment discharge concentration distributed from July to September.  The runoff during flood season accounted for 52.4% of the annual runoff. The sediment
discharge during flood season accounted for 82.2% of the annual sediment discharge.After
the application of reservoir impoundment, the runoff and sediment discharge trends to be
uniform of the downstream hydrologic station during the year. The drop rate ofaveraged
sediment discharge of the downstream hydrology stations decreases with increasing
distance from the reservoir dam.The reduction of Maojiahe station, Yangjiaping station and
Zhangjiashan station is 87.1%, 47.8% and 33.4% respectively.
(3) By the runoff-sediment double mass curve of Zhangjiashan station, Zhuangtou
station and Huaxian station, we know the sediment discharge of the 3 stations changed,
which indicating that besides the runoff impaction to sediment load, human activity is the
main reason for the sediment discharge variation trend changed of Weihe River.
Meanwhile, the turning point of the runoff-sediment double mass curve corresponded to
the time of the reservoirs’ impoundment. The accumulation amount of sediment reduction
is 4.52×10 8 t from 2001 to 2008 without the rainfall influence, estimated by
runoff-sediment double mass curve of Zhangjiashan station. The accumulation amount of
sediment reduction is 5.78×10 8 t from 2003 to 2008 without the rainfall influence,
estimated by runoff-sediment double mass curve of Zhuangtou station. The accumulation
amount of sediment reduction is 11.24×10 8 t from 2001 to 2008 without the rainfall
influence, estimated by runoff-sediment double mass curve of Huaxian station.
Keyword:Runoff; Sediment discharge; Reservoir sedimentation; Sedimentation rate
empirical model; Weihe River basin

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9005
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵玉. 渭河流域典型水库淤积及其对径流输沙的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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