ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
温室作物水分亏缺智能诊断系统研发
潘永安
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor范兴科
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword温室作物 水分亏缺 智能 诊断系统 控制平台
Abstract

现代化的温室农业突破了传统农业种植受地域、气候、季节等因素影响的限制,
为作物生长发育提供了适宜与良好的环境条件,在世界范围内得到了广泛应用。以色
列、美国等温室农业与节水灌溉技术发达国家的实践经验表明:温室灌溉管理的信息
化与智能化在节能节水、降低劳动强度、提高产品质量和品质等方面发挥着举足轻重
的作用。实现精准化智能灌溉的重要前提是温室作物水分亏缺状况的精确诊断,我国
在作物水分状况科学诊断和灌溉精准控制技术方面起步较晚,许多温室作物灌溉决策
仍然主要依靠经验,或者仅仅靠测定土壤含水量作为作物水分诊断的指标,很少从作
物自身来考虑作物水分的需求。本文通过查询和收集农业专家的相关最新研究成果建
立温室作物适宜水分信息专家知识系统,并筛选集成数种科学可靠的作物田间水分诊
断模型,开发出适合我国国情的成本低、易开发、适用性广、稳定性高的智能灌溉决
策系统。主要研究内容与成果如下:
(1) 综合考虑影响作物水分亏缺诊断的各种因素,结合温室特殊的小气候环境特
征,选取并确立了四种较为可靠、适用性较强的温室作物水分亏缺诊断模型,包括土
壤含水量法、冠层叶气温差诊断法、Penman-Monteith 公式诊断法和茎直径微变化诊
断法。其中 Penman-Monteith 公式诊断法是以水量平衡原理为基本依据,用适用于温
室的 Penman-Monteith 修正式计算出参考作物蒸散量,然后结合水量平衡原理计算出
日末土壤含水量,再与土壤水分下限相比较由此诊断作物的水分亏缺状况。
(2) 基于作物在不同生长阶段、不同环境条件下适宜水分状况、作物系数等特征
参数不同的特点,运用 MySQL 数据库管理系统,设计构建了温室作物灌溉管理数据
库系统,为提高温室作物水分亏缺诊断的精确性与高效性提供了技术平台。
(3) 应用 Borland C++ Builder(XE2)软件开发平台、MySQL(5.1)数据库管理系统,
研发出具有较强通用性和界面友好型的温室作物水分状况智能诊断系统,用户只需输
入系统所需的基本参数,选择好适宜的诊断模型,系统便能够通过调取实时采集的作
物环境信息准确地诊断出作物当前的水分亏缺状况,并计算出所需灌水量,为温室灌
溉智能控制提供可靠的决策依据。系统集成了四种作物水分诊断模型,提高了系统的适用性,利于推广应用。通过温室番茄水分亏缺诊断的试验应用,验证了系统运行的
稳定性、诊断结果的可靠性及操作的简单性。
(4) 以温室作物水分亏缺诊断系统为核心,通过开发基于 Zigbee 无线传输的温室
作物信息采集系统与灌溉执行终端,研发构建了温室智能灌溉远程控制平台,可以实
现对作物实时、精量的智能化灌溉效果。而且借助互联网实现了资源的共享,使众多
温室经营管理者实现温室作物灌溉的远程控制管理。
关键词:温室作物;水分亏缺;智能;诊断系统;控制平台

Other Abstract

Modern greenhouse agriculture has been widely applied throughout the world,
since it has broken through the traditional agriculture limitation which is influenced
by factors such as region, climate as well as season, so as to provide suitable and
favorable environmental conditions for crop growth. The practical experiences
concluded by developed countries like Israel and American indicate that
informatization and intelligentization of greenhouse irrigation management has
significant influence on saving energy and water, liberating labour and improving
product quality. The accurate diagnosis of crop water status is the important
precondition for automatic and precise irrigation in greenhouse. The scientific
diagnosis of crop water status and precise control for irrigation in our country started
relatively late. Irrigation decision relating a lot kind of greenhouse crops were still
mainly rely on experiences, or just rely on measuring soil water content to diagnose
crop water status. Inherent factors in crops were rarely considered. Through querying
and collecting associated theory and latest research conducted by agricultural experts,
we have constructed professional knowledge system which best suit irrigating
greenhouse crops. Meanwhile various kinds of scientific and reliable diagnosis
models which suit greenhouse crops were selected, diagnosis irrigating system which
was low-costing, easy to exploit, widely applied and also with high stability was
developed. The main research contents and results are described as follows:
(1) Considering various factors that influence diagnosis of crop water
deficit, combining special  microclimate environmental  characteristics  in
greenhouses, this paper has selected four reliable and super suitable models diagnose  crop water deficit in greenhouses, including soil water method, canopy leaf-air
temperature method, diagnosis method base on Penman-Monteith equation as well as
crop stem diameter micro-variation method. Among them, diagnosis method base on
Penman-Monteith equation was conducted according to water balance principle, using
moderated Penman-Monteith equation suitable for greenhouses to calculate reference
crop evapotranspiration and soil water content at the end of every day combining
water balance theory, then diagnose water deficit condition by comparing with soil
water lower limit.
(2) Basing on different characters of latent parameters like proper water status
crop factors with different growth stages and different environmental conditions,
using MySQL database management system, we have designed the irrigation
management database system of greenhouse crop, as so to offer technique platform of
improving the accuracy and efficiency of crop water diagnosis in greenhouses.
(3) By applying Borland C++ Builder(XE2)soft development platform、
MySQL(5.1)data base management system, we have researched and developed
intelligent diagnosis system of crop water status in greenhouses with high universality
and friendly interface. Users only need to input basic parameters required and select
suitable diagnostic model, the system can accurately diagnose present water deficit
condition of crops by accessing crop environment information in time. At the same
time, irrigation requirement can also be calculated to offering reliable decision basis
of intelligently control irrigation in greenhouses. The system has integrated four
diagnostic models of crop water and the applicability has been improved, all these
made it beneficial to put into application. By experimental application of water deficit
diagnose of greenhouse tomato, we have verified the stability of system operation、
liability of diagnosis and simplicity of operation.
(4) Taking greenhouse crop water deficit diagnosis system as kernel, by
developing greenhouse crop information collecting system based on Zigbee wireless
transmission and irrigating execute terminal, we have established remote control
platform of greenhouse intelligence irrigation so as to realize intelligent irrigating
effect to crops that is in time and accurate. Moreover, the sharing of resources was
realized through utilizing the Internet, which allowed common managers of  greenhouses to make use of the platform to conduct remote control management of
greenhouse crop irrigation.
Key Words:greenhouse crop; water deficit; intelligent; diagnosis system;
control platform

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/9004
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
潘永安. 温室作物水分亏缺智能诊断系统研发[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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