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神府东胜矿区 煤田开采对农田土壤污染及其生态风险 评估
李 冬 梅
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor焦峰
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword神府东胜矿区 景观格局 生态脆弱性 生态风险评估
Abstract

神府东胜矿区位于毛乌素沙漠和西北黄土高原过渡地带的沙化区,生态环境脆
弱,水土流失严重。矿区主要以露天开采为主,对其原地貌、地表植被等景观破坏严
重,制约着矿区社会经济的可持续发展。
本研究以准格尔旗 1990、2010 年两期 TM 遥感影像为数据源,利用景观生态学
理论及景观格局分析方法,对准格尔旗矿区的景观结构、景观格局及景观脆弱度进行
了动态分析;并结合土壤重金属元素的实验数据,研究了矿区重金属元素的生态污染
风险等,为今后治理与保护矿区生态环境、合理配置其景观格局及矿区资源的持续有
效利用提供理论依据。结果表明:
(1)20 年间,准格尔旗各乡镇在景观水平与斑块水平上发生了显著的变化,其
景观异质性变差、优势度明显降低,景观格局相对简单化,且景观多样性降低;
(2)20 年间,研究区三个区域的居民及工矿用地面积增加,显著影响着其景观
构造的变化,研究区的植被覆盖面积呈增加趋势,但其景观更加离散、不规则化。矿
区开发主导了矿区景观格局变化:加大建筑用地面积,严重地破坏耕地,减少耕地面
积;而林地、草灌地面积虽有所增加,但其景观格局却更加破碎,生态系统更加不稳
定。
(3)破碎度(包括斑块密度和边界密度)和分离度指数结合起来能很好地反映
出景观信息与景观要素脆弱性之间的密切联系,在准格尔旗地区,人类活动所引起的
景观破碎化和分离程度成为景观要素脆弱性的决定性因素。20 年间,随着人类活动
对自然资源资源的高强度开发及区域人口、社会经济的发展,导致人类活动对区域内
景观要素干扰剧烈。20 年间,准格尔旗南部区域生态脆弱度变化最大,总区域的生
态脆弱度增大,说明其景观要素稳定性较差,对外界干扰较为敏感。
(4)四个煤矿的重金属含量差异较大,且孙家豪与何家塔煤矿的各种金属含量
明显高于赵家梁与六道沟煤矿。多受到风向等因素的影响,每个样点上的元素存在方
位上的规律性(ES>W>N),表现出明显的富集积累趋势。在横向距离及土壤垂直剖
面上,各重金属元素都表现出逐渐降低的趋势,具有一定的波动性,变化幅度有差异。(5)单因子污染指数和内梅罗综合污染指数结果基本一致,煤矿周围农田土壤
均受到 Cd、Cu、Zn、Pb 不同程度的污染。其中四个煤矿 Cd 的污染最严重,且分别
有 71.4%与 6.9%的采样点综合污染达到警戒水平。孙家豪与赵家梁煤矿周围农田土
壤重金属元素的污染程度显著大于何家塔与六道沟煤矿。
(6)四个煤矿周围土壤重金属综合潜在生态风险系数范围在 14.65~241.96 之间,
均值为 24.70,处于低风险水平,但最大值已达到中等风险程度。孙家豪煤矿生态风
险程度大于何家塔煤矿,RI 值分别为 45.03 和 20.04 ,赵家梁煤矿生态风险程度要
大于六道沟煤矿,RI 值分别为 18.74 和 14.97;单项元素的生态风险影响程度都是
Cd 最大,Zn 最小,且 Cd 对 RI 值的贡献最大,为矿区土壤环境中最主要的污染元
素和潜在风险元素。Cd 是四个矿区土壤环境中最主要的污染元素和潜在风险元素。
四个煤矿土壤重金属元素存在一定的同源性,具有明显的土壤重金属复合污染特征。
关键 词:神府东胜矿区;景观格局;生态脆弱性;生态风险评估

Other Abstract

Shenfu-Dongsheng mine area is located in the Mu Us Desert and the Loess Plateau
transition zone of the northwest area of desertification, its ecological environment is fragile,
accompanied by serious erosion. The mining based mainly on open-pit, which brint about
serious damage to its original topography, vegetation landscape, restricted the sustainable
socio-economic development of the mine.
In this study, two years (1990 and 2010) TM images of Zhungeer region were taken as
the data source, based on the landscape ecology theory and landscape pattern analysis
method. The dynamic characteristics of landscape structure, landscape patterns and
landscape vulnerability in the Zhungger mine were analyzed. Combined with the
experimental data of heavy metals in soils, we studied ecological pollution of heavy metals
in mine risk, providing a theoretical basis for the future management and protection of
ecological environment of mining area, the rational allocation of the landscape pattern and
sustained and effective utilization of mine resources.The results showed that:
(1) During the 20 years, the landscape pattern of every townships in Zhungeer
plaque has undergone significant changes in both landscape and patch level, among the
landscape heterogeneity deteriorated, landscape dominance reduced, and landscape
diversity decreased;
(2) During the 20 years, building land area of the three regions was increased; it
significant affected the changes of landscape structure. The area of vegetation cover in the
study area had an increasing trend. However, the landscape was more dispersed and
irregular. The mining area exploitation was the dominate factor to effect the changes of
landscape pattern, such as enlarging the building area, destroying the farmland, and
reducing the cultivated land area. Furthermore, although the woodland and grass-shrub  land area were increased, its landscape pattern was more broken, and its ecosystem was
more unstable.
(3)Fragmentation (including patch density and edge density) and separation index
combines well reflect the landscape of information and close ties between the fragile
landscape elements, in Zhungeer County area, landscape fragmentation caused by human
activities and the degree of separation of the vulnerability landscape elements become the
decisive factor. In 20 years as the population, social and economic development of human
activities on natural resources, resource development and regional high-intensity, resulting
in the area of human activity on the landscape elements violent interference. During the 20
years, the ecological vulnerability of Zhungeer’s southern region changed biggest, while
the ecological vulnerability of the total area was increased, indicating that its landscape
elements were lesser stable and more sensitive to outside interference.
(4)Heavy metal content of four mines was quite different, while the content of Sun
Jiahao and He Jiata colliery was significantly higher than that of Zhao Jialiang and Liu
Daogou mine. Multi-affected wind and other factors, the presence of elements in each
sample point had some regularity azimuth (ES> W> N), showed significant enrichment
accumulation trend. On the vertical profiles in the soil and lateral distance, each of heavy
metals had shown a decreasing trend, with some volatility, changed in the magnitude of
differences.
(5) Single factor pollution index and Nemerow pollution index results were basically
consistent, the surrounding farmland soils mines were subject to Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb polluted to
varying degrees. Where Cd pollution was the most serious, moreover 71.4% and 6.9% of
the sampling points and integrated pollution reached alarming levels. The farmland heavy
metals pollution of Sun Jiahao and Zhao Jialiang mine were significantly greater than that
of He Jiata and Liu Daogou mine.
(6) The range of comprehensive potential ecological risk factor of soil heavy metal
pollution surrounding the four mines were between 14.65 ~ 241.96 with an average of
24.70, been at the low level of risk, but the moderate risk had reached the maximum extent.
Sun Jiahao mine ecological risk was greater than the He Jiata colliery, RI values were
45.03 and 20.04, Zhao Jialiang colliery’s ecological risk was greater than Liudaogou
colliery’s, RI values were 18.74 and 14.97; the largest degree of ecological risk influence   of individual elements was Cd element, and the minimum was Zn element, and Cd made
the biggest contribution to the RI values, was the most important mining soil environment
pollution elements and potential risks elements.Cd element is the most important mining
pollution and potential risks element in the four soil environment. The soil heavy metals
surrounding the four mines were some homology with obvious characteristics of soil heavy
metals contamination.
Key words: Shenfu Dongsheng mine; landscape pattern; eco-environment vulnerability;
ecological risk assessment

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8996
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李 冬 梅. 神府东胜矿区 煤田开采对农田土壤污染及其生态风险 评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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