ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土高原丘陵沟壑区 沟道 治理工程的生态水文效应研究
高海东
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李占斌
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土高原丘陵沟壑区 沟道治理工程 生态水文效应 侵蚀产沙 流域侵蚀 控制度
Abstract

淤地坝作为黄土高原最主要的沟道治理措施,在水土保持方面发挥着巨大作用。
根据水利部《黄土高原地区水土保持淤地坝规划》,到 2020 年,淤地坝数量将达到
16.3 万座。如此规模巨大的淤地坝建设,势必对黄土高原生态环境产生深远影响。系
统、深入的研究淤地坝建设对流域生态、水文、泥沙过程的调控机理,对丰富水土保
持科学研究、发展具有黄土高原特色的水沙模型、推进黄土高原水土保持事业,具有
积极作用。本文综合分析了淤地坝对流域水文过程、植被分布、侵蚀产沙的影响,取
得的主要结论如下:
(1)沟道治理工程显著改变了流域蒸腾发、土壤水再分布、地表径流等水文过
程。使用基于遥感的 SEBAL 模型,估算了韭园沟流域和裴家峁流域的日蒸腾蒸发量:
结果表明坝地蒸腾蒸发量最大,为 4.98 mm·d -1 ,其次为果园及林地,为 4.78 mm·d -1 ,
再次为草地,蒸腾蒸发量为 4.49 mm·d -1 ,而梯田和坡耕地蒸腾蒸发量较小,分别为
3.82 mm·d -1 、3.76 mm·d -1 ;流域不同土地利用类型下的土壤含水量分析表明:次降雨
后,梯田和坡地表层土壤水分消退较慢,而退耕梯田和退耕坡地表层土壤水分消退较
快;坝地土壤水分分层现象较为明显,土壤水分垂直变率大,平均为 0.21,其它土地
利用类型土壤水分垂直变率较小,在垂直分布上较为一致,梯田为 0.08,退耕梯田为
0.07,坡耕地为 0.04,退耕坡地为 0.07;淤地坝对流域径流系数与流域滞时有显著影
响,韭园沟、王茂沟、想她沟较裴家峁、李家寨、团园沟径流系数分别减少了 29.43%、
34.63%、16.78%。王茂沟平均流域滞时为对比流域李家寨的 3 倍,反映出以淤地坝
为主的流域治理措施对地表径流过程的调节作用。
(2)沟道治理工程改变了流域生态水文情势,进而影响了植被的时空分布。沟
道治理工程能增加局地植被覆盖度,提高植物群落的多样性,但幅度较小;韭园沟与
裴家峁归一化植被指数(NDVI)特征对比分析表明:裴家峁流域 NDVI 值的分布出
现了聚集现象,而韭园沟流域 NDVI 值各月份内分布较为均匀。7 月份,裴家峁 NDVI
值集中分布在 0.3~0.4 之间,比例为 74.77%,其次为 0.2~0.3 之间,比例为 13.79%,二者相差达 60.98%,而韭园沟 7 月份 NDVI 集中分布在 0.3~0.4,比例为 60.54%,
其次为 0.2~0.3,比例为 34.75%,二者相差仅为 25.79%,这间接反映了裴家峁流域
植被类型较韭园沟流域较单一的特点。
(3)沟道治理工程有效的拦蓄了泥沙,显著降低了流域泥沙输移比。不同尺度
对比流域的输沙模数计算结果显示:韭园沟输沙模数比裴家峁减少 28.09%,王茂沟
输沙模数比李家寨减少 67.75%,想她沟输沙模数比团园沟减少 27.75%;次暴雨过程
分析,王茂沟 23 座淤地坝共淤积泥沙 159031t,王茂沟把口站输沙总量为 27891t,流
域出口与坝地泥沙总量为 186922t,流域次暴雨土壤侵蚀模数达 31310t/km 2 ,泥沙输
移比仅为 0.15,即 15%的泥沙经过出口断面汇向主沟道,85%的泥沙沉积在坝地中。
(4)定量分析了淤地坝淤积过程对流域沟坡稳定性和土壤侵蚀模数的调控作用。
随着坝地淤积高度的增加,流域极不稳定区域逐渐减少,而极稳定区域逐渐增加。定
义了流域的先锋期、过渡期以及顶级期三个治理“演替”状态,并使用修正通用土壤
流失方程(RUSLE)分析了不同“演替”阶段以及淤地坝淤积过程中的土壤侵蚀模
数变化情况:先锋期与顶级期是流域水土保持治理的两个极限状态,土壤侵蚀模数分
别为 184.43t×hm -2 ×a -1 与 4.62t×hm -2 ×a -1 。随着坝地淤积厚度(x)的增加(侵蚀基准面抬
升),沟谷坡土壤侵蚀模数(y)呈线性减少,拟合公式为 y=-1.5315x+121.15,公式
的截距和斜率分别表示基准土壤侵蚀模数和侵蚀速率,其数值大小与流域峁边线位置
有关,随着峁边线上移,基准土壤侵蚀模数增加,侵蚀速率减少。
(5)基于流域水土保持生态水文效应,提出了土壤侵蚀控制度的概念并研究了
流域侵蚀调控潜力。将流域能容纳的最大适宜水土保持措施量称为水土保持措施容
量,反映了流域的水土保持治理潜力。水土保持措施容量下流域的土壤侵蚀模数称为
最小可能土壤侵蚀模数,将最小可能土壤侵蚀模数与现状土壤侵蚀模数的比值定义为
流域侵蚀控制度。计算得出 2004 年王茂沟流域侵蚀控制度为 0.35,造成王茂沟流域
侵蚀控制度较低的原因是流域的坡耕地面积较大以及林地面积较少,表明王茂沟流域
还有进一步治理的空间。
关键词 :黄土高原丘陵沟壑区,沟道治理工程,生态水文效应,侵蚀产沙,流域侵蚀
控制度

Other Abstract

The Loess plateau of China was the world's most serious water and soil losses areas, as
the most primary gully control measures in the Loess plateau, check dams plays a
tremendous role in the soil and water conservation. There were about 90 thousands check
dams in the Loess plateau by the end of 2008, according to the plan, the amount of check
dam will reach 163 thousands by the end of 2020. So big check dams construction, may
have as profound an impact on the ecology environment of the Loess Plateau. Therefore,
thoroughly and systematically study on environmental impact of check dams, to promote
the development of soil and water conservation in loess plateau, expand soil and water
conservation science research, has played an active role. This paper was base on the theory
of geography, hydrology, ecology and soil and water conservation, to employ remote
sensing, stable isotope, soil erosion prediction model technology, check dam effecting the
vegetation features, hydrologic cycle, erosion process are analysed comprehensively. The
main conclusions were as follows:
(1) Gully control engineering change the Surface water cycle process was very
remarkable. To reveal evaportranspiration characteristics of watersheds different in
adoption of water and soil conservation measures, two watersheds, Jiuyuangou and
Peijiamao were selected as subjects for estimation of evapotranspiration from different
underlying surfaces using the energy-balance based SEBAL remote-sensing model. Results
show that the daily evaportranspiration of Jiuyuangou, which is better managed in water
and soil lands different in land use followed the order of check dam > orchard > woodland
> grassland > terrace > slope land in daily evaportranspiration. The different land use soil
moisture content analysis shows that: after rain, soil surface moisture of terrace and
slopelands was degrade slowly, unlike returning terrace and slope farmland , there were
degrade quickly. Check dam moisture vertical variable ratio more than other land use type,
the largest moisture vertical variable ratio reached 52%, which appeared at 70cm~80cm,  and in the depth of 80 cm~130 cm, have obvious layered; Based on the observational data
of precipitation and runoff from 1958 to 1969, analysed the impact of check dam on runoff
coefficient and basin lag time. the runoff coefficient of Jiuyuangou is 29.43 less than
Peijiamao, Wangmaogou is 34.63% less than Lijiazhai, Xiangtagou is 16.78% less than
Tuanyaungou. The basin lag time of Wangmaoogu more than tripled Lijiazhai.
(2) Analysis of the gully engineering measures (check dam) to the influence of the
watershed vegetation. Gully engineering measures can increase the local vegetation
fraction and the diversity of plant communities within a small range. The NDVI of the
watershed under different water and soil conservation managements displayed different
seasonal variation. In July, NDVI of Peijiamao concentrated distribution in between 0.3
and 0.4, followed by between 0.2 and 0.3, and the range was 60.98%. In Jiuyuangou, the
range was only 25.79%.
(3) The effect of the sediment interception of check dams is very significant. Modulus of
sediment yield was calculated by observed data from 1958 to 1969 show that: Modulus of
sediment yield of Jiuyuangou is 28.09% less than Peijiamao, Wangmaogou is 67.75% less
than Lijiazhai, Xiangtagou is 27.75% less than Tuanyaungou. Based on the analysis of a
heavy rain process in 7-17-2012, in this heavy rainfall, 159031t sediment is deposit in the
23 chaeck dams of Wangmaogou, Wangmaogou hydrologic station sediment discharge is
27891t, total of erosion amount is 186922t, the soil erosion modulus of Wangmaogou is
31310t/km 2 in this heavy rainfall, the sediment delivery ratio is 0.15.
(4) Quantitatively analyzes the charge of soil erosion modulus along with the increase in
siltation height. To study the influences of check-dam siltation on soil erosion of a
watershed, we built a simplified watershed model for the Loess Plateau hilly-gully region
including terraced fields, slope farmlands, steep-slope grasslands, and dam farmlands, and
defined three states of watershed (i.e., pioneer, intermediate, and climax stages,
respectively). Then, the watershed soil erosion moduli at various stages were studied by
using a revised universal soil loss equation. Our results show that the pioneer and climax
stages are the extreme states of watershed soil-and-water conservation and control; in the
pioneer stage, the soil erosion modulus was 184.43 t×ha -1 ×a -1 ; in the climax stage, the soil
erosion modulus was 4.62t×ha -1 ×a -1 ; in the intermediate stage, the soil erosion modulus (y)
below the edge of gully exhibited a linear decline along with the increase in siltation height  (x), the expression is y=-1.5315x+121.15, intercept b was the increase in reference erosion
modulus, a was the erosion reduction rate, both of which increased with the upward
movement of the edge of gully.
(5) This paper presented a new concept- erosion control degree, which can estimate the
degree of soil erosion controlling. The minimum possible soil erosion moduli (2573
t/(km 2 ×a)) under capacity of soil and water conservation measures in Wangmaogou
watershed was calculated. Use 2004 land use map, calculates the actual soil erosion moduli
of Wangmaogou is 7413 t/(km 2 ×a), and defined erosion control degree is the minimum
possible soil erosion moduli divide the actual soil erosion moduli, the erosion control
degree of Wangmaogou is 0.35, at a lower level, due to existed a number of sloping
farmland and forestry area is less. We suggest that erosion control degree as the evaluation
indicator about soil and water conservation of the status quo.
Key Words: Loess hilly-gully region, gully erosion control works, hydro-ecological
impact, erosion and sediment yield, erosion control degree

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8980
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
高海东. 黄土高原丘陵沟壑区 沟道 治理工程的生态水文效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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