ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
近30 年 河龙区间侵蚀产沙时空 变化及 驱动因 子研究
刘建祥
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李锐 ; 李智广 ; 张晓萍
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword侵蚀 产沙 时空演变 影响因素 驱动性 河龙区间
Abstract

本研究针对近 30 年来黄土高原水土流失治理以及退耕还林(草)工程实施
引起的下垫面变化,以黄河流域河龙区间(河口镇-龙门)为典型研究区,采用
野外调查、RS/GIS 分析模拟,结合水文统计等方法,分析了该区降雨、植被等
环境因子变化,探讨了该区侵蚀、产沙时空变化特征,分析了影响区间侵蚀产沙
的驱动因素,主要结论如下:
1、近30年侵蚀产沙环境演变特征
1)降雨及降雨侵蚀力:1981~2010 年区间降雨在年际尺度上呈不显著的减
小趋势。其中,降雨减少的面积占区间总面积的 81.80%。四个典型流域均呈现
出减少趋势。年际尺度上降雨侵蚀力呈不显著的减少趋势,区间降雨侵蚀力呈减
小趋势的面积为 7.72 万 km 2 。四个典型流域中,延河和仕望川降雨侵蚀力呈减
少趋势,窟野河和皇甫川减少的面积分别占 26.62%和 57.13%。
2)土壤可蚀性:土壤可蚀性总体上呈减小的趋势,减小的面积占总面积的
79.80%。窟野河和皇甫川总体呈减少趋势,延河和仕望川减少的面积分别为
58.65%和 14.03%。
3)植被覆盖:2000~2010 年生长季节区间植被覆盖增长趋势极显著,植被
增加的区域占 98.7%。其中,7 月、8 月和 9 月植被覆盖变化对总体植被增加的
贡献最大。四个典型流域中,延河的植被改善情况最好。
4)水土保持措施:水土保持措施总面积由1979年的1.26万km 2 增加至3.43万
km 2 ,增加了1.73倍,其主要是由于造林和种草面积增加。水土保持措施绝对面
积变化最大的为窟野河,其次为延河。面积相对变化上,增加最大的为清涧河,
其次为昕水河、延河和窟野河。
2、近30年河龙区间侵蚀产沙时空演变过程
1)土壤侵蚀演变:该区 2011 年土壤侵蚀模数为 2205.4t/km 2 ·a。水土流失面
积 5.26 万 km 2 ,占总面积的 46.72%。其中,中度土壤侵蚀面积最大,占 15.08%。四个典型流域中,皇甫川土壤侵蚀模数为 1033.5 t/km 2 ·a,窟野河为 1487.2
t/km 2 ·a,延河 2986.7 t/km 2 ·a,仕望川 1026.2 t/km 2 ·a。延河的土壤侵蚀面积比例
最大,其次为窟野河。
2000 年至 2011 年区间总体土壤侵蚀面积减少明显、强度降低,剧烈侵蚀变
化最大,土壤侵蚀面积减少了 30.22%。不同下垫面各典型流域极强烈和剧烈侵
蚀减少剧烈,轻度侵蚀增加明显,其中,仕望川土壤侵蚀面积变化幅度最大。
2)河流输沙时空变化:1980~2010 年,区间多年平均输沙量为 31044.8 万吨,
2000 年至 2010 年年均输沙量为 16020 万吨。区间多年均输沙模数为
2747.3t/km 2 ·a,2000~2010 年为 1417.7t/km 2 ·a。皇甫川多年平均输沙模数和
2000~2010 年的年输沙模数均最大。区间和各典型流域跃变时间均在 1998 年左
右。
该区和各流域输沙量随时间均表现出减少趋势,尤其是在 1998~2010 年的
时间段内,输沙量减少更为剧烈零输沙的天数明显有增多的趋势。区间在丰水
期退耕还林前后变化为-50.2%,枯水期变化为-47.6%。侵蚀产沙最为强烈的窟
野河和皇甫川地区侵蚀产沙变化极为剧烈。
3、河龙区间自然及人类活动对侵蚀产沙的驱动性分析
1)降雨与植被覆盖关系:植被指数与降雨正相关的地区占区间总面积的
73.3%,其中正相关显著的面积占 22.14%。皇甫川和窟野河总体植被与降雨呈正
相关关系;延河和仕望川呈负相关面积较多,在降雨减少的背景下,人类活动起
到了主要作用。
2)降雨与输沙关系:该区降雨的跃变时间不显著。区间和四个典型流域降
雨与输沙的波动状态有一定的相似性,但是总体降雨变化不大,而输沙量在 1998
年以后年值较低且表现为减少趋势。区间和四个典型流域单位降雨产沙系数在
1998 年前后变化剧烈,且相关系数显著性极低,在 1998 年以后产沙量变化主要
受人类活动的影响。
3)人类活动驱动下的土地利用变化:退耕还林还草工程取得了较好的生态
效益,林地面积显著增加,沙地、农地向草地、林地流转,土地利用变化方式剧
烈。整个区间的斑块个数增加剧烈,平均斑块面积增加明显,区间土地利用格局
由破碎化、高异质性趋于集中化。在退耕还林的政策驱动下,人类活动逐渐退耕
而有效的增加了林地面积。
四个典型流域和区间变化趋势类似,总体表现出草地、林地增加,农地减少的趋势。其中,仕望川流域各地类变化幅度最小。
4)、水土保持措施对土壤侵蚀影响:水土保持措施可平均减少土壤侵蚀模数
471.9 t/km 2 ·a,减少水土流失面积 14.52%,可有效地减少极强烈和强烈侵蚀。其
中,土壤侵蚀面积减少程度最高的为皇甫川减少了 55.22%。
关键词:侵蚀,产沙,时空演变,影响因素,驱动性,河龙区间

Other Abstract

In view of the underlying surface change for the implement of soil erosion
control and the Grain for Green Programme on the Loess Plateau, the paper took the
He-Long Region as typical study area, utilized the field survey, RS/GIS analysis
simulation, and the hydrological statistics methods to analyse the spatiotemporal
trends of environment including precipitation, vegetation, etc., discuss the erosion and
sediment yield variation characteristicon, and analyse the driving factors. The results
of this research are as follows:
(1) Spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion and sediment yield
environment
1) Precipitation and rainfall erosivity: Precipitation was not significantly reduced
from 1981 to 2010 at interannual scales. Areas of showing decreasing trend of
precipitation took 81.80% of the whole region. Rainfall erosivity was not significantly
reduced at interannual scales. Areas of rainfall erosivity showing decreasing trend was
7.72×10 4 km 2 . Overall, rainfall erosivity at Yanhe and Shiwangchuan reduced. Areas
of rainfall erosivity decreased took 26.62% and 57.13% of the corresponding basin
respectively at Kuyehe and Huangfuchuan.
2) Soil erodibility: Areas of soil erodibility decreased occupied 79.80% of the
whloe region from the late 1970s to 2010. Soil erodibility reduced in Kuyuhe and
Huangfuchuan. Areas of soil erodibility decreased constituted 58.65% and 14.03% of
the Yanhe and Shiwangchuan areas.
3) Vegetation cover: Vegetation cover increased highly significantly in the
growing season from 2000 to 2010. And vegetation cover increased the most  significantly in July, August and September. The improve situation of vegetation was
best in Yanhe.
4) Soil and water conservation measures: The total area of soil and water
conservation measures increased from 12600 km 2 to 34300 km 2 during 1979 and 2011,
which was mainly for the increase of afforestation and grass. The largest change of
area was in Kuyehe, followed by Yanhe. The relative change of areas was largest in
Qingjianhe, and followed by Xinshuihe, Yanhe, and Kuyehe.
(2) Spatial and temporal variation of erosion and sediment load
1) Soil erosion: The soil erosion modulus was 2205.4t/km 2 ·a at 2011 on the
He-Long Region. Area of suffering soil erosion was 5.26×10 4 km 2 which occupied
46.72% of the whole area. Among of that, area of suffering moderate soil erosion was
largest with 1.70×10 4  km 2  which takes 15.08% of the whole area. The soil erosion
modulus was 1033.5 t/km 2 ·a in Hufuchuan, 1487.2 t/km 2 ·a in Kuyehe, 2986.7 t/km 2 ·a
in Yanhe, 1026.2 t/km 2 ·a in Shiwangchuan. The proportion of soil erosion area in the
basin area of the He-Long Region is largest in Yanhe.
The soil erosion area reduced significantly with 22783.6km 2 and a decrease of
30.22%, the erosion intensity descended, and the severe erosion changed the most
dramatic on the He-Long Region from 2000 to 2011. The the very strong and violent
erosion area reduced very severely at typical basins of different underlying surface
and the mild erosion increased significantly. And the erosion area variation degree
was largest in Shiwangchuan.
2) Sediment load: The multi-year average sediment load is 31044.8×10 4 tons
from 1980 to 2010, and 16020×10 4  tons from 2000 to 2010. The annual average
sediment transport modulus is 2747.3 t/km 2 ·a from 1980 to 2010, and is 1417.7
t/km 2 ·a from 2000 to 2010. Transition time is around 1998 on the He-Long Region
and typical watersheds.
The sediment showed a decreasing trend over time on the He-Long Region and
each typical basin, especially on the time period during 1998 and 2010, the the degree
of reduction is more dramatic and the zero sediment discharge days showed a
obviously growing trend. The sediment load reduced 50.2% after the Grain for Green
Programme compare with that before the programme at wet period, and the change  value was -47.6% at dry period. The change of erosion and sediment yield is very
dramatic in Kuyehe and Huangfuchuan where the erosion and sediment yield is most
serious.
(3) Erosion and sediment yield driving factors as environment and human
activities.
1) Effect of precipitation to vegetation: Areas of NDVI being positively
correlated with precipitation constituted 73.3% of the whole region, among of which,
areas of showing significantly positive correlation occupied 22.14%.
Vegetation is positively correlated with precipitation on Huangfuchuan and
Kuyehe. On the contrary, the correlate relation is mainly negative on Yanhe and
Shiwangchuan where the precipitation is reduced, which illustrates that human
activities play an effective role.
2) Effect of precipitation to sediment load: Transition time of annual
precipitation was not significant. The fluctuating state of preicpitation is similar to
that of sediment load at the He-Long Region and the four typical basins, however the
change degree is small overall. The annual sediment load is small and shows a
reducing trend after 1998.
The sediment yield coefficient of precipitation changed dramatically on the
whole region and the four typical basins, and the significant of correlation coefficient
is very low after 1998 which illustrates that the sediment load is mainly influnced by
human activities
3) Land use change driving by human activities: The Grain for Green
Programme achieved good ecological benefits for the forestland increased
significantly, the sandland and farmland changed to grassland and forestland, and the
landuse types changed violently. Number of Patches increased severely, mean patch
areas increased significantly. The Land use structure are by beginning to
centralization from fragmentation and heterogeneity. The human activities increase
the forestland effectively on the He-Long Region.
The case of landuse change at the four basins is similar to the whole region
where the farmland reduced and grassland and forestland increased. Among of that,
the change degree is least in Shiwangchuan.  4) Effect of conservation measures to soil erosion: Conservation measures
averagely reduce the soil erosion modulus by 471.9 t/km 2 ·a, and the soil erosion area
by 14.52%. The conservation measures can reduce the extremely strong and strong
soil erosion area effectively. Soil erosion area reduced by 55.22% in Huangfuchuan
whose change degree is largest.
Key Words: Erosion; Sediment; Spatiotemporal trends; Factors; Drive; The He-Long
Region

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8973
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘建祥. 近30 年 河龙区间侵蚀产沙时空 变化及 驱动因 子研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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