ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土高原冬小麦水氮高效利用及优化耦合研究
付秋萍
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王全九
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword水肥耦合 水分利用效率 水肥高效利用 产量 冬小麦 黄土高原
Abstract

研究水肥耦合互馈作用,探求水肥合理投入水平,提高水肥利用率,对于提高农
业生产的经济效益和生态效益,保证半干旱区农业的可持续发展具有重要意义。本论
文通过两年不同水氮耦合处理的冬小麦田间试验,对不同水氮处理下冬小麦生长、产
量以及土壤剖面水分、硝态氮运移进行了分析,并以作物产量和水分利用效率为目标,
推求水肥合理投入区间,以期确定水肥优化耦合区域、实现水氮高效利用。研究主要
结论如下:
1. 水氮耦合显著影响作物生长动态、产量及其组成。灌水和施氮之间存在着显
著的正交互效应,适当增加灌水量和施氮量有助于提高冬小麦产量。N0~N3 时,随
灌水量的增加冬小麦籽粒产量显著增加,当施氮量为N4 和N5 水平时,随灌水量增加
籽粒产量先增加而后略有降低。灌水处理亦有相似的规律,当灌水超过W3 处理时,
籽粒产量略有降低。2008-2009 年度W5N3 处理产量最高,为 9.97t·ha -1 ;2009-2010
年W3N4 处理产量最高,为 8.62 t·ha -1 。水氮耦合显著提高冬小麦株高。灌水和氮肥
对冬小麦生物量和叶面积的影响和籽粒产量相似。在整个生育期内,灌水处理叶面积
指数明显高于旱作处理,特别是到冬小麦生育后期,灌水不仅显著增加冬小麦叶面积
指数,同时也延长了冬小麦生理功能的时间。
2. 水氮耦合对收获期土壤剖面水分含量有显著影响。旱作处理下,土壤水分随
施氮量的增加而降低,收获期土壤剖面含水率较低;随着灌水量的增加,土壤剖面含
水率逐渐增大。受施氮量的影响,较低的土壤含水率条件下,夏闲期降水入渗深度变
浅,W3 和W5 水分水平下,N0 处理土壤入渗补充深度达 300cm以下;W0N0 处理土
壤水分入渗深度为 200cm。低(W0)、中(W3)、高水(W5)水分水平下,随施氮量的
增加,土壤水分补充深度分别从 220cm至 140cm不等。2008-2009 年度,水分利用效
率W2N2 处理最高,为 18.43 kg·(ha•mm) -1 ;W5N0 最小,为 4.29 kg·(ha•mm) -1 ;最
大水分利用效率高出最低 4.3 倍。2009-2010 年度,水分利用效率W2N5 最高,为 16.71
kg·(ha•mm) -1 。
3. 氮素对土壤硝态氮累积量的影响明显高于水分,土壤硝态氮含量基本均随施氮量增加而增大。在冬小麦两年度试验中,当施氮量低于 225 kg·ha -1 时,作物生长需
消耗部分土壤氮,而当施氮量高于 225 kg·ha -1 时将开始造成硝态氮的残留。不施氮处
理由于土壤中硝态氮含量已很少,0-300cm土层其变化不大;施氮处理下硝态氮在
0-300cm土层呈波形变化趋势。冬小麦整个生长过程,在土壤 60cm左右深度硝态氮存
在最小值。本试验中,当施氮量为 300 和 375 kg·ha -1 时造成了硝态氮大量残留,将会
造成淋溶,不利于环境保护。同时,通过 0-300cm硝态氮累积量、产量与施氮量关系
可知,当一味追求最高产量时,将引起硝态氮的大量积累,造成大量浪费与环境污染。
4
投入会造成作物减产,符合报酬递减率;2008-2009 年度,当灌水量为 331mm,
施氮量为 290kg·ha -1 时有最大产量 10.34t·ha -1 ;当灌水量为 138mm,施氮量为
243.6kg·ha
1 时有最大水分利用效率 18.96kg·(ha·mm) -1 ;2009-2010 年度,当灌水量为
309mm,施氮量为 283 kg·ha -1 时有最大产量 9.168t·ha -1 ;当灌水量为 85.9mm,施氮量
为 242.8kg·ha -1 时有最大水分利用效率 16.73 kg·(ha·mm) -1 。水肥的产量、耗水量效应
分别为二次抛物面和平面。通过弹性指数及水氮区间的两种表达方式(最大产量和产
量增加最大),分别得出了水肥合理投入范围,均为以最高产量和最大水分利用效率
为长轴的椭圆;联合实际生产中追求的利益最大化原则,确定了水肥耦合优化区域,
即为以椭圆长轴和以产量增加最大为方向得到的椭圆下半区所围成的范围。并指出该
地区最大灌水量不应超过 331mm。水肥耦合优化区域直观的反映了水氮投入范围,
为该地区实际生产提供了参考。

Other Abstract

Reasonable application, increas fficiency, and to explicit the role of
two-
uld significantly impact crop growth, yield, and
the y
ations soil moisture profile response to the different water and N-fertilizer
Winter Wheat of the Loess Plateau
Major: Soil Science Research field: Soil Physics
ing the utilization e
way drive function between water and fertilizer is one important issue for continuing
to improve the economic and ecological benefits of the agriculture development in
semi-arid regions. In this paper, the 2-years field experiment on winter wheat was
conducted with different water and fertilizer treatments, which aimed to evaluate the yield
effect of water and fertilizer coupling on plant growth, yield, soil moisture profile and
nitrate-N transport. Targeting high yield and water use efficiency (WUE), we estimated the
optimal coupled interval of water and nutrients supplies for high yield and water use
efficiency. The mainly results as follow:
1. Water and N-fertilizer coupling co
ield components. There was a sharp positive interaction between irrigation (W) and
nitrogen application (N), which contributed to the higher plant height and grain yield. The
grain yields were increased significantly with the increase in irrigation under application
the N fertilizer from N0 to N3 treatments, while it were showed a downward trend slightly
after the first rise under N4 and N5 treatment. Meanwhile, grain yield was improved by
irrigation amount increased from W0 to W3, and then decrease slightly. The highest yield
was 9.97 t·ha -1 occurred in W5N3 treatment during 2008-2009, and was 8.62 t·ha -1 in
W3N4 treatment during 2009-2010. The similarly results occurred in biomass and leaf
areas response to different water and N-fertilizer coupling. Notably, the irrigation was
consistently produced higher LAI and the longer physiologically functional period of
winter wheat.  coup
trate-N accumulation was clearly improved by N-fertilizer than by
irriga
yield significantly and there
was
ling in the harvest period. The soil moisture content was decreased with the increase
in N-fertilizer under rain-fed condition, but increased with the increase in irrigation. Base
on the interaction between irrigation and N-fertilizer application, the depth of the soil
infiltration supplement was achieved 200cm in the W0N0 treatment and more than 300cm
in W3N0 or W3N0 treatments. In the lower (W0), middle (W3), and higher (W5) irrigation
treatments, the depth of the soil infiltration supplement decreased from 200cm to 140cm
with the increase in N-fertilizer application. During 2008-2009, the highest WUE was
18.43 kg·(ha•mm) -1 occurred in W2N2 treatment, and the least WUE was 4.29
kg·(ha•mm) -1 . Similarly, the highest WUE was 16.71 kg·(ha•mm) -1 occurred in W2N5
during 2009-2010.
3. The soil ni
tion. During both growing season, crop growth needs to be consumed part of soil N
when the n application rate is less than 225 kg·ha -1 , conversely, cause of nitrate-N residual
in soil when the N application rate is greater than 225 kg·ha -1 . In application of no
N-fertilizer treatment, the soil nitrate-N have not changed much in 0-300 cm soil layer due
to the lower soil N content. In the other N-fertilizer treatments, the nitrate-N results in
waveform with the rising of soil depth from 0 to 300 cm, and the least nitrate-N occurred at
60 cm. We also found that the large number of nitrate-N residues in soil profile led to
nitrate-N leaching when the N application of 300 and 375 kg·ha -1 . Hence, blindly pursuing
high crop grain yield with higher water and N-fertilizer input will cause greater nitrate-N
residues lead to fertilizer waste and environmental pollution.
4. irrigation and/or nitrogen input can increase the final
a positive interactive term between water and nitrogen fertilizer on final yield.
However, the overuse of water and/or nitrogen led to the low yield, and met the law of
diminishing return. During 2008-2009, when the irrigation amount is 331mm and the
nitrogen fertilizer is 290 kg·ha -1 , there is the maximum yield (10.34t·ha -1 ), and the input of
nitrogen fertilizer is 243.6kg·ha -1 plus the irrigation 138 mm, which can get the maximum
value on WUE [18.96kg·(ha·mm) -1 ], While in 2009-2010, application of 283 kg·ha -1
nitrogen and 309 mm irrigation can get the highest wheat yield (9.168t·ha -1 ); and 85.9 mm
irrigation amount and 242.8kg·ha -1 nitrogen input can reach the maximum WUE [16.73
kg·(ha·mm) -1 ]. Yield and ET responses to water and nitrogen inputs followed a quadratic  and a line function, respectively. The optimal-coupling domains are determined by
elasticity index (EI) and its expression in the water-nitrogen dimensions, which are the
ellipse forms with the global maximum WUE and Y corresponding to the left and right end
points on its long axis. Considering of local maximum yields, the optimal-coupling domain
was the lower half-ellipse form with the two end points of the global maximum yield and
WUE on its long axis. Total irrigation amount to winter wheat should not exceed 331mm.
The optimal-coupling domain reflects visually range of water and nitrogen inputs. It can
provide reference for the water and nitrogen inputs in agricultural applications.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8965
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
付秋萍. 黄土高原冬小麦水氮高效利用及优化耦合研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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