ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土区工程堆积体水蚀 特征及 坡度因子试验研究
黄鹏飞
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王文龙
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生产建设项目 工程堆积体 标准小区 坡度因子 水动力学参数
Abstract

伴随我国基础设施建设项目投资力度的不断加大,各类生产建设项目日益增多,在
建设过程中,大量的植被遭到破坏,地表和地下的土体被扰动、剥离和运移,造成了严
重的人为水土流失,生态环境问题愈加严峻。特别是在该过程中,形成的大量弃土弃渣
体,亦即工程堆积体,因无任何防护措施的非法乱堆乱弃,成为水土流失最为严重的地
方,同时也成为人为新增水土流失最主要的泥沙策源地,造成了局部生态环境的进一步
恶化。分析认为,要建立我国生产建设项目水土流失测算模型,依然需要借用美国通用
流式方程 ULSE 的思想,对其可蚀性、坡度坡长、降雨侵蚀力诸因子进行修订,而这方
面的工作目前依然属于空白。因此,本文以黄土区生产建设工程堆积体为主要研究对象,
采用室内人工模拟降雨方法,通过对室内模拟工程堆积体的产流、产沙和水动力学特征
进行研究,探讨其土石体侵蚀机理和水土流失规律,确定工程堆积体水蚀测算模型坡度
因子 S 值的关系表达式和定值方法。为最终建立生产建设项目工程堆积体水土流失测算
模型以及主管部门监督执法提供了科学依据,具有重要的科学意义和实际应用价值。主
要得出以下结论:
(1)不同石砾含量条件下,径流率、径流输沙率分别是降雨量的线性和指数函数。
径流率、径流输沙率与降雨量和坡度分别呈显著的复合线性和复合幂函数关系。径流输
沙率与径流率之间的关系可以用指数函数来描述。
(2)不同降雨量条件下,径流率与坡度呈显著的线性函数关系,与坡度和石砾含
量呈显著的复合线性函数关系。当降雨量为 45、90 和 112.5 mm 时,径流输沙率与坡度
和石砾含量均呈显著的复合线性函数关系。当降雨量为 90 和 112.5 mm 时,径流输沙率
与石砾含量呈显著的指数函数关系。
(3)不同坡度条件下,径流率、径流输沙率分别是降雨量的线性和指数函数。径
流率、径流输沙率与石砾含量无相关关系。径流率、径流输沙率分别是降雨量和石砾含
量的复合线性函数。径流输沙率均是径流率的指数函数。
(4)不考虑坡度和石砾含量的影响,径流率、径流输沙率分别与降雨量呈显著的
线性和指数函数关系。径流率、径流输沙率是降雨量、坡度和石砾含量的复合线性函数。5)石砾含量相同条件下,径流剪切力和水流功率均随降雨量的增大而增大。单
位水流功率随降雨量和坡度的增大而递增。坡度相同条件下,径流剪切力和水流功率均
随降雨量的增大而增大。降雨量是影响径流剪切力和水流功率的主要因素。降雨量相同
条件下,单位水流功率随坡度的增大而增大,坡度对单位水流功率的影响最大。
(6)径流剪切力是降雨量、坡度和石砾含量的复合线性函数,水流功率、单位水
流功率是降雨量、坡度和石砾含量的复合线性函数。土壤剥蚀率与径流剪切力、水流功
率、降雨量之间的关系分别可以用指数函数来表达,与单位水流功率、弗汝德数则分别
呈现为二次方函数关系,与雷诺数、阻力系数分别呈幂函数关系。各水动力学参数与土
壤剥蚀率拟合结果的优劣关系依次为:降雨量、水流功率、单位水流功率、弗汝德数、
阻力系数、径流剪切力和雷诺数。土壤剥蚀率是降雨量、坡度和石砾含量的复合线性函
数。
(7)结合工程堆积体的特点,首次对我国各类工程堆积体水蚀测算模型的标准小
区和坡度因子作了如下定义。标准小区:规定坡度为 35º,坡长为 20m,裸露的工程堆
积体作为我国各类工程堆积体水土流失研究的标准小区。坡度因子定义:在其他条件相
同的情况下,任一特定坡度的工程堆积体产生的土体流失量与坡度为 35º 的工程堆积体
产生的土体流失量之比。
(8)分别运用本文中回归拟合得到的坡度因子幂函数和三角函数方程式,建立了
坡度在 15º~44º 之间的坡度因子 S 值的查算表。
关键词:生产建设项目;工程堆积体;标准小区;坡度因子;水动力学参数

Other Abstract

Various production and construction projects are increasingly implemented along with
increased investment in China's infrastructure construction projects. In the process of
construction, plenty of vegetation is destroyed and surface and underground soils are
disturbed, detached and removed, which has caused serious man-made soil erosion and made
eco-environmental problems to become severe year by year. Because of illegal heaping and
random dumping without any protective measure, massive waste soils and residues, i.e.,
engineering accumulations, become the most serious places subject to soil and water loss and
the main sediment origins for the newly-added soil and water loss by human, which severely
deteriorates local eco-environment. In order to construct a soil and water loss calculation
model suitable for production and construction projects in China, it is essential to refer to the
ideas involved in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revise such factors as soil
erodibility, slope steepness, slope length and rainfall erosivity. At present, research on these
aspects still has many works to do in China. In this study, by taking the engineering
accumulation of production and construction projects in the loess area as the research object,
runoff yield, sediment yield and hydrodynamics on indoor simulated engineering
accumulation were focused through an artificially simulated rainfall experiment. Specific
objectives were to understand the mechanisms of soil erosion and the processes of soil and
water loss and find the relational expression and the method to define fixed value for slope
steepness factor (S) incorporated in the soil and water loss calculation model. Our study may
provide a scientific basis for the calculation model and the supervision and law enforcement  by governmental departments in charge. The study is of important significance in science and
practical values in application. The main conclusions are as follow:
(1) Under the condition of different soil textures, runoff rate and sediment transport rate
are linear and power functions of rainfall amount, respectively. Runoff rate has a linear
relation with rainfall amount and slope steepness, while sediment transport rate, a power
relation. The relationship between sediment transport rate and runoff rate can be described
using exponential function.
(2) Under the condition of different rainfall amounts, runoff rate has a linear relation
with slope steepness and a complex linear function with slope steepness and soil texture. For
rainfall amounts of 45, 90 and 112.5 mm, sediment transport rate has significant complex
liner relation with slope steepness and soil texture, while for rainfall amounts of 90 and 112.5
mm, there is a significant exponential relationship between sediment transport rate and soil
texture.
(3) Under different slope steepnesses, runoff rate and sediment transport rate are linear
and power functions of rainfall amount, respectively, but have no correlation with soil texture.
Runoff rate and sediment transport rate are complex linear function of rainfall amount and
soil texture, respectively. There is an exponential relationship between sediment transport rate
and runoff rate.
(4) Runoff rate and sediment transport rate are significant linear and exponential
functions of rainfall amount, respectively, if slope steepness and soil texture are not taken into
account. Runoff rate and sediment transport rate are complex linear function of rainfall
amount, slope steepness and soil texture.
(5) For the same soil texture, both runoff shear stress and stream power increase with
increased rainfall amount. Unit stream power increases with increased rainfall amount and
slope steepness. For the same slope steepness, both runoff shear stress and stream power
increase with increased rainfall amount. Rainfall amount is the main factor affecting runoff
shear stress and stream power. For the same rainfall amount, unit stream power increases with
slope steepness and slope steepness has the greatest effect on unit stream power.
(6) Runoff shear stress is complex linear function of rainfall amount, slope steepness and
soil texture, while stream power and unit stream power are complex liner function of rainfall
amount, slope steepness and soil texture. The relationships of soil detachment rate with runoff
shear stress, stream power and rainfall amount can be described using exponential function,
respectively. Soil detachment rate is quadratic function of unit stream power and the Froude
number (Fr), and power function of the Reynolds number (Re) and resistance coefficient (f),
respectively. The optimal curve fittings for the relationships between soil detachment rate and  the hydrodynamic parameters are in the descendant order of rainfall amount, stream power,
unit stream power, Fr, f, runoff shear stress and Re. Soil detachment rate is complex liner
function of rainfall amount, slope steepness and soil texture.
(7) For the first time, the standard plot and slope steepness factor used in the water
erosion calculation model are defined in combination with the characteristics of the
engineering accumulation. The standard plot adopted for the research on soil and water losses
from various engineering accumulations in China is defined as the bare plot with a length of 5
m and a slope steepness of 35º. The slope steepness factor S is defined as the ratio of soil loss
from a specific engineering accumulation to that from the engineering accumulation of 35º
slope steepness, when other conditions are identical.
(8) A check spreadsheet of the S values for the slope steepnesses of 15º to 44 º is
established using the power and trigonometric equations of slope steepness factor obtained by
regression fittings.
Keywords: production and contribution project, engineering accumulation, standard plot,
slope steepness factor, hydrodynamic parameters

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8958
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
黄鹏飞. 黄土区工程堆积体水蚀 特征及 坡度因子试验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
黄土区工程堆积体水蚀特征及坡度因子试验研(6050KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[黄鹏飞]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[黄鹏飞]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[黄鹏飞]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.