ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
高分子材料对山地苹果园水土保持效益的影响
李晶晶
Subtype硕士
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土丘陵沟壑区 山地苹果园 高分子材料 径流泥沙 养分流失
Abstract

陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区水土流失严重、土壤贫瘠、水资源短缺等问题抑制了该区苹果
产业的持续、健康发展。如何减少土壤侵蚀、提高土壤水分、养分利用效率,改善果树
生态环境是山地果园发展面临的首要任务。施用吸水性高分子材料在雨季可起到减少径
流泥沙、保肥效果,在旱季则可以起到保水抗旱效果,可作为该区有效的水土流失治理
措施。本文以土壤结构调理剂 PAM、BJ2101-L 保水剂及沃特保水剂为供试材料,在陕
北丘陵沟壑区开展了 3 种高分子材料对山地果园土壤水分、径流泥沙、土壤养分流失及
果树生长状况的影响研究,探讨不同高分子材料的水土保持效益,并得出以下结论:
1.高分子材料能显著提高土壤水分,但其保水作用有一定的时效性。高分子材料对
土壤水分的主要影响主要在 0-50 cm 土层。在果树生长期,0-50 cm 土层土壤含水量表
现为雨季>雨季后>旱季前>旱季。在旱季,PAM、BJ2101-L、沃特 0-50 cm 土层土壤
水分分别较对照提高了 0.75%、0.33%、0.67%,无显著差异;在雨季则分别较对照提高
了 9.57%、3.59%、4.32%,PAM 达到显著差异(P<0.05);雨季后分别较对照提高了
9.70%、16.67%、5.92%,BJ2101-L 达到极显著差异(P<0.01),且 PAM 促进了水分入
渗,提高了 50 cm 土层以下的土壤水分。不同处理中,PAM 对提高山地果园土壤水分
更为显著。高分子材料在雨季前施用效果较佳。
2.高分子材料可显著降低地表径流。陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区山地果园的地表径流与降
水特征密切相关。不同处理的径流量均随降水量的增加而增加,呈幂函数关系;随降水
强度的增加而增加,呈线性关系。果园径流量与降水历时、降水间隔无显著相关性。不
同降水因子中,降水强度对山地果园地表径流量的影响最大。不同处理的径流量与降水
量、降水强度的关系式为:
对照= -0.02+0.03P+0.16E R 2 =0.91
PAM =-0.09+0.02P+0.12E R 2 =0.89
BJ2101-L = -0.05+0.02P+0.13E R 2 =0.88
沃特= -0.03+0.02P+0.14E R 2 =0.90  PAM、BJ2101-L 及沃特保水剂较对照地表径流量分别减少 22.19%、16.9%、12.7%,
PAM 的减流效果相对较好。
3. 高分子材料可显著降低土壤侵蚀。陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区山地果园的土壤侵蚀主要
与降水特征密切相关。不同处理的果园侵蚀量均随降水量的增加而增加,呈线性关系;
随降水强度的增加而增加,呈幂函数关系。果园侵蚀量与降水历时和降水间隔之间无显
著相关性。不同降水因子中,降水强度对山地果园土壤侵蚀量影响最大。果园土壤侵蚀
量与降水量、降水强度之间的关系式为:
对照=-49.63+0.30P+16.37E R 2 =0.86
PAM =-36.83+0.04P+12.57E R 2 =0.86
BJ2101-L =-40.77+0.13P+13.54E R 2 =0.86
沃特=-43.88+0.19P+14.44E R 2 =0.86
PAM、BJ2101-L 及沃特保水剂较对照果园土壤侵蚀量分别减少 27.50%、20.63%、
14.27%,PAM 防治土壤侵蚀的效果相对较好。
4. 高分子材料可减少土壤养分流失。PAM、BJ2101-L、沃特处理氮素年流失总量
较对照分别减少了 44.02%、53.30%、42.55%,磷素减少了 38.74%、47.01%、31.60%,
钾素减少了 36.97%、41.14%、25.44%,有机质减少了 28.21%、30.50%、22.93%。3 种
不同高分子材料处理均减少了养分流失量,BJ2101-L 的效果相对较佳。在野外降水条件
下,氮素、磷素和钾素泥沙结合态流失量分别占到流失总量的 83.24 %~93.31 %、
99.66 %~99.87 %、99.54 %~99.59 %。侵蚀泥沙是土壤养分流失的主要途径。
5. 高分子材料可促进树体生长,对果实品质无显著影响。不同处理对苹果树树高、
树冠及果实可溶性固形物、可溶性糖、有机酸、硬度、Vc及果型指数、单果质量等无显
著影响,但显著促进了新梢生长及干径生长,提高了苹果产量及产值,并随时间的积累
效果愈加显著。2012年PAM、BJ2101-L、沃特保水剂的经济产值较对照分别提高了
12.5 %、22.11 %、19.23 %,其中BJ2101-L处理产值最高,PAM最小。
关键词:黄土丘陵沟壑区;山地苹果园;高分子材料;径流泥沙;养分流失

Other Abstract

Since serious soil and water loss, soil impoverishment and water resources shortage,
apple product had been inhibited to sustained and healthy development in the loess hill and
gully area of Northern Shaanxi. How to reduce soil erosion, increase soil moisture and soil
nutrient, and improve the ecological environment of apple were the primary task to hillside
orchard development. Application of super absorbent polymer materials could reduce runoff
and sediment, conserve fertilizer in rainy season, and have water conservation and drought
resistance effects during the dry season, which can be used as the chemical control measure to
reduce soil and water loss. This paper took soil conditioner PAM, BJ2101-L and Wote super
absorbent as tested materials, the effects of three kinds of polymer materials on soil moisture,
runoff and sediment, soil nutrient loss and the growth of apple trees in the loess hill and gully
area of Northern Shaanxi were conducted, and had the following results:
1. Polymer materials obviously improved soil moisture content, but they have a certain
period of effectiveness. The main soil layers that polymer materials effected on soil moisture
were 0~50 cm soil depth, during the apple growing period, the soil moisture of 0~50 cm soil
depth at different stages were as follows: rainy season>after rainy season>before drought
season>drought season. PAM、BJ2101-L and Wote super absorbent respectively increased
0~50 cm soil moisture by 0.75%, 0.33% and 0.67% compared with the CK in drought season,
and did not show significant difference;respectively increased 9.57%、3.59%、4.32% in rainy
season, and PAM had significantly higher than CK at 0.05 levels; respectively increased
9.70%, 16.67%, 5.92% after rainy season,and BJ2101-L had significantly higher than CK at
0.01 levels. PAM promoted the water infiltration in rainy season, and improved the water  moisture below 50 cm soil depth. In all the treatments, the effect of PAM treatment was more
obvious. The application of polymer materials should be centralized before rainy season.
2. Polymer materials significantly decreased runoff amount. Runoff of slope orchard was
closely related to precipitation characteristics in the loess hill and gully area of Northern
Shaanxi. The runoff amount of different treatment increased with precipitation amount and
precipitation intensity, and the relationships followed power function and linear function,
respectively. There were no significant effects between runoff amount of slope orchard and
precipitation duration, precipitation interval. Among the precipitation factors, precipitation
intensity had the greateat effects on the runoff amount. The relationships between orchard
runoff amount and precipitation amount, precipitation intensity as follows:
CK= -0.02+0.03P+0.16E R 2 =0.91; PAM=-0.09+0.02P+0.12E R 2 =0.89;
BJ2101-L=-0.05+0.02P+0.13E R 2 =0.88; Wote= -0.03+0.02P+0.14E R 2 =0.90.
Compared with the CK, the orchard runoff amount of PAM, BJ2101-L and Wote super
absorbent were decreased by 22.19%, 16.9% and 12.7%, respectively, in which the effect of
PAM treatment was more obvious.
3. Polymer materials significantly decreased erosion amount. Soil erosion of hillside
orchard was closely related to precipitation characteristics in loess hill and gully area of
Northern Shaanxi. The erosion amount of different treatment increased with precipitation
amount and precipitation intensity, and the relationships followed linear function and power
function, respectively. There were no significant effects between erosion amount of slope
orchard and precipitation duration, precipitation interval. Among the precipitation factors,
precipitation intensity had the greateat efrects on the erosion amount. Relationships between
orchard erosion amount and precipitation amount, precipitation intensity as follows:
CK=-49.63+0.30P+16.37E R 2 =0.86; PAM=-36.83+0.04P+12.57E R 2 =0.86;
BJ2101-L=-40.77+0.13P+13.54E R 2 =0.86; Wote =-43.88+0.19P+14.44E R 2 =0.86.
Compared with the CK, the orchard erosion amount of PAM, BJ2101-L and Wote super
absorbent were decreased by 27.50%, 20.63% and 14.27%, respectively, in which the effect of
PAM treatment was more obvious  4. Polymer materials could effectively decrease soil nutrient loss. Compared with the CK,
annual nitrogen loss amount of PAM, BJ2101-L and Wote super absorbent were decreased by
44.02%, 53.30%, 42.55%, respectively; annual phosphorus loss amount decreased by 38.74%,
47.01%, 31.60%, respectively; annual potassium loss amount decreased by 36.97%, 41.14%,
25.44%, respectively; annual organic matter loss amount decreased by 28.21%, 30.50%,
22.93%, respectively. All the polymer materials treatments decreased the annual nutrient loss
amount, in which of them BJ2101-L has a comparatively better effect. Under field
precipitation condition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter loss amount with
sediment forms account for 83.24%~93.31%, 99.66%~99.87% and 99.54%~99.59% of the
tatal, respectively. Sediment was mainly approach of nutrient loss. Improving soil effectively
and reducing soil and water loss was the key to prevent and control of soil nutrient loss.
5. Polymer materials could improve the growth of apple trees, but had no significant
effects on fruit quality. Different treatments had no significant effect on the height and crown
of apple trees, had no significant effect on the soluble solids, soluble sugar, organic acid,
firmness, vitamin C, fruit shape index of apple fruit,but significantly increased new shoots
length, new shoots thickness and stem diameter, apple yields, apple economic value, and had
a more significant effects along with the time. Compared with the CK, economic value of
PAM, BJ2101-L and Wote super absorbent were increased by 12.5%, 22.11%, 19.23%,
respectively. All the treatments improved economic value in 2012, in which of BJ2101-L was
the highest, and that of PAM was the lowest.
Key Words:  loess hilly gully area; slope apple orchard; polymeric material; soil moisture;
runoff and sediment; fertilizer loss

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8957
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李晶晶. 高分子材料对山地苹果园水土保持效益的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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