ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
退耕还林工程驱动下的安塞县商品型生态农业 实施效果评价
崔绍芳
Subtype硕士
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword退耕还林工程 商品型生态农业 系统耦合 实施效果 阶段性
Abstract

商品型生态农业建设是一个不断改善农业生态经济系统耦合协调关系,实现农业
生态-经济、资源-产业系统之间协调统一的过程。黄土高原退耕还林工程的实施,通
过改变土地利用结构、增加生态资源量改善了区域生态系统,同时影响了农业产业结
构和布局以及农业经济的发展,对商品型生态农业的发展产生了重要作用;商品型生
态农业的发展对退耕还林工程系统具有一定的反馈作用,二者相互耦合并融为一体,
促进了区域生态经济复合系统的发展演变。商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统耦合
关系的演变态势和农业生态经济系统耦合态势的演变过程,既是退耕还林工程实施以
来商品型生态农业建设效果的表现,也是对商品型生态农业实施效果评价的核心;对
于揭示退耕还林工程驱动下的农业生态经济系统的运行规律及其本质具有重要的现
实意义。因此,本文选择典型区域安塞县作为研究区域,通过分析退耕还林工程与商
品型生态农业系统的互动关系,明确其表征的指标体系;分析评价商品型生态农业与
退耕还林工程系统耦合态势的演变过程;判定商品型生态农业自退耕还林工程实施以
来经历的阶段,为进一步巩固退耕还林成果,推动区域商品型生态农业快速发展,实
现农业生态经济系统的协调可持续发展方案的制定提供参考。主要结论如下:
(1)退耕还林工程对商品型生态农业系统的影响,主要表现为对农业资源和产
业系统的正的驱动过程——促进了农业资源结构的优化和产业结构的调整,商品型生
态农业迅速发展;局部负作用——造成了农业资源的闲置和浪费。2009 年安塞县农林
牧用地中林草地比重较 1998 年增长了 11.3%,耕地面积逐渐减少,农业资源结构得到
优化;农林牧副产业结构不断调整,农业主导产业由退耕前的种植业、畜牧业转变为
退耕后的棚栽业、林果业等,商品型生态农业快速发展;但也造成了农业资源的闲置
和浪费,2008 年实际畜牧量仅占草地理论最适承载量的 19.36%,产业与资源相关性
降低,一定程度上制约了商品型生态农业的潜力实现率。反过来,商品型生态农业的发展一定程度上巩固了退耕还林成果。
(2)从商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统以及农业生态与经济系统两个层次
建立耦合度模型,对商品型生态农业系统与退耕还林工程系统的耦合态势及其演变进
行了分析,结果表明:商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统的耦合态势演变过程可以
划分为 4 个阶段:商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统协调化发展阶段(Ⅰ),过度
退耕情况下商品型生态农业发展阶段(Ⅱ),过度退耕限制商品型生态农业发展阶段
(Ⅲ),限制商品型生态农业发展速度以促进退耕还林系统快速发展阶段(Ⅳ);其中,
阶段Ⅱ可能会短期出现,而阶段Ⅲ和阶段Ⅳ一般只是理论上的结果。1999~2010 年,
安塞县商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统耦合关系先后经历了商品型生态农业与
退耕还林工程系统协调化发展阶段和过度退耕情况下商品型生态农业发展阶段,目前
处于过度退耕情况下农业经济系统发展速度下降时期,过度退耕和农业产业—资源局
部相悖态势导致系统耦合协调程度减弱,农业生态经济系统的可持续协调发展潜伏着
一定危机。
(3)在评价商品型生态农业与退耕还林工程系统的耦合关系的基础上,依据农
业生态-经济系统和产业-资源子系统两个层次的耦合协调度判定标准,初步确定了商
品型生态农业 3 个阶段的定量判定标准:Ⅰ.基本结构建造阶段——农业生态-经济系
统耦合协调度 0< ≤0.8,农业产业-资源子系统耦合协调度 0< ≤0.7;Ⅱ.完善农
业系统循环阶段——农业生态-经济系统耦合协调度 0.8< ≤0.9,农业产业-资源子
系统耦合协调度 0.7< ≤0.9;Ⅲ.系统“加环”阶段——农业生态-经济系统和产业-
资源子系统的耦合协调度 0.9< ≤1.0。
1
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2
D
D
在此基础上,判定了退耕还林工程实施以来安塞县商品型生态农业经历的阶段及
其现状特征,结果表明:退耕还林工程实施以来,商品型生态农业建设成效显著,系
统综合发展指数由 1999 年的 0.2752 增长到 2010 年的 0.7195。1999-2009 年,安塞县
商品型生态农业建设先后经历了第Ⅰ阶段的生态系统结构建造时期和农业产业结构
调整时期,生态系统的改善和农业产业结构的调整和发展促进了农业经济的快速增
长;2010 年,开始向完善农业系统循环阶段(阶段Ⅱ)过渡;目前,农业产业-资源
子系统的耦合协调关系明显滞后于农业生态-经济系统,相关产业的发展并未合理有
效地利用农业资源,农业产业与资源的局部相悖态势制约了商品型生态农业系统综合
发展水平的快速提高。
(4)基于耦合度模型和耦合协调度模型两种方法下的安塞县商品型生态农业实
施效果评价的研究结果表明,退耕还林工程实施以来,安塞县商品型生态农业在建设过程中凸显的主要问题是:农业生态资源的闲置和浪费,过度退耕的负面效应显现,
农业后续产业链以及特色农产品品牌发展缓慢等。为此提出了促进农业生态经济系统
协调可持续发展的路径和策略:首先在巩固退耕还林成果的基础上,发展林草及其相
关产业,提高农业资源的有效利用率,大力培育后续产业,优化农业产业结构,完善
商品型生态农业系统链网结构;其次要有效保护耕地资源,防止过度退耕现象的进一
步发展。
关键词:退耕还林工程;商品型生态农业;系统耦合;实施效果;阶段性

Other Abstract

The construction of ecological agriculture with commodity (EAC) is a process that
continuously improving the coupling relationship of agricultural eco-economic system to
realize the coordination and unification of agricultural eco-economic system and
agricultural industry and resources system. The implementation of Grain for Green Project
in the Loess Plateau had improved the regional ecological system by changing the land use
structure and increasing the ecological resources. At the same time, the project had affected
the agricultural industry structure and layout as well as the development of agricultural
economy, and had an important role in the development of EAC. The development of EAC
also had a certain feedback effect on the system of Grain for Green Project. The system of
EAC and Grain for Green Project are coupled to each other and integration, which had
promoted the development and evolution of the regional eco-economic system. The
Evolution of the coupling relationship of EAC and Grain for Green Project system and the
evolution of agricultural eco-economic system coupling situation are not only the
performances of the construction effect of EAC, but also the cores of the effect evaluation.
It had an important practical significance for revealing the effect of constructing EAC
driving by Grain for Green Project by analyzing and evaluating the evolution of
eco-economic system coupling situation. Therefore, taking Ansai County as an example,
analyzing the interaction between the system of Grain for Green Project and EAC to make
clear the index system of their characterization, analyzing the evolution of coupling
situation between EAC and Grain for Green Project system, and determining the phases
that EAC experienced since the implementation of Grain for Green Project, could provide a
reference for the consolidation of achievements of Grain for Green Project, the rapid
development of regional EAC, and the formulation of coordinated and sustainable
development programs of agricultural eco-economic system. The main results are as  follows:
(1) The effect of Grain for Green Project on the EAC was mainly presented as the
positive driving process on agricultural resources and industrial system——Promoted the
optimization of the agricultural resources structure and the adjustment of industrial
structure; and the negative restriction——caused the idle and waste of agricultural
resources. With the project’s going, forest and grassland in the proportion of agricultural
land in 2009 increased by 11.3%, compared to 1998. The area of farmland decreased and
agricultural resources were optimized. Agricultural industrial structure was adjusted.
Agricultural leading industry were plastic house culture and forestry and fruit industry after
the implementation of Grain for Green Project, which used to be farming and animal
husbandry,EAC developed rapidly. However, agricultural resources were wasted and idle.
The actual amount of livestock in 2008 accounted for only 19.36% of the theoretical
optimum carrying capacity of grassland. The correlation of agricultural industry and
resources was decreased, which restrained the realization rates of EAC. Conversely, the  
rapid development of EAC, to some extant, consolidated the achievements of Grain for
Green Project.
(2) There were two levels of coupling degree models established, which were EAC
and Grain for Green Project system, and agricultural eco-economic system, to analyze the
evolution process of the coupling situation of EAC and Grain for Green Project system.
The results showed that the evolution process could be divided into 4 phases:  . Phase of  Ⅰ
EAC and Grain for Green Project system harmonious development,  .Phase of EAC  Ⅱ
developed in the case of the returning farmland excessive,  . Phase of excessive returning  Ⅲ
farmland limit the development of EAC,  .Phase of the development of Ⅳ EAC is limited to
promote Grain for Green Project system rapid development, of which, phase  and  exist  Ⅲ Ⅳ
only in theory, and phase  may appear for a short Ⅱ -term. The coupling relations in Ansai
County had experienced phase and  from 1999 to 2010. The cur Ⅰ Ⅱ rent system coupling
relationship was in the period of agricultural economic system development speed decline
and the system coordinated degree weakened because of excessive returning farmland and
clear contrary trend of agricultural industry and resources. Certain crisis of the sustainable
and coordinated development of agricultural eco-economic system was existed.
(3) On the basis of evaluated the coupling relationship of EAC and Grain for Green  Project system, according to the grade criterion of coupling coordinated degree of
agricultural eco-economic system and industry-resources system, the judgement standard of
the 3 phases of EAC construction was determined preliminarily. . The phase of basic  Ⅰ
structure construction: the coupling coordinated degree of agricultural eco-economic
system was 0< ≤0.8, and the coupling coordinated degree of industry-resources system
was 0< ≤0.7. .The phase of perfect agriculture system circulation: the coupling  Ⅱ
coordinated degree of agricultural eco-economic system was 0.8< ≤0.9, and the
coupling coordinated degree of industry-resources system was 0.7< ≤0.9.  . The phase  Ⅲ
of expanding agricultural system: the coupling coordinated degree of agricultural
eco-economic system and industry-resources system was 0.9< ≤1.0.
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Based on all above, the phases of EAC in Ansai County had gone through were judged.
The results showed that since the implementation of Grain for Green Project, Great
progress has been made in the construction of EAC in Ansai County. The complex
development index of agriculture system rose from 0.2752 in 1999 to 0.7195 in 2010. The
EAC in Ansai County had gone through the ecosystem construction period and agricultural
industrial structure adjustment period of phase , and began to transition to the phase of  Ⅰ
perfect agriculture system circulation (phase ) in 2010. At present, the coupling  Ⅱ
coordination relationship of industry-resources system lagged far behind in the agricultural
eco-economic system; the agricultural industry do not rationally and effectively utilize
agricultural resources; the contrary trend between agricultural industries and resources had
restricted comprehensive development level of EAC.
(4) Based on coupling degree model and coupling coordinated degree model, the
results of evaluation on the effect of constructing EAC showed that since the
implementation of Grain for Green Project, the main problems in the process of
constructing EAC in Ansai County were as follows: waste and idle of agricultural resources,
negative effects of excessive returning farmland appeared, follow-up industries of
agriculture and agricultural product brand with special characteristics developed slowly.
Therefore, the benign strategies to promote coordinated sustainable development of
agricultural eco-economic system were put forward: First of all, on the basis of consolidate
the achievements of Grain for Green Project, it is necessary to develop forestry and grass
industry and their related industries, improve the effective utilization of agricultural  resources and establish follow-up industries, optimize agricultural industrial structure, and
perfect the chain network structure of eco-agriculture with commodity system; Secondly,
the effective measures should be taken to protect arable land resources and prevent
phenomenon of excessive returning farmland.
Key words: Grain for Green Project; eco-agriculture with commodity; system coupling
relationship; effect of Implementation; phase

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8955
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
崔绍芳. 退耕还林工程驱动下的安塞县商品型生态农业 实施效果评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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