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施肥对华北落叶松人工林根茎叶氮磷含量及生态化学计 量规律的影响
张 潘
Subtype硕士
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword华北落叶松 生态化学计量 施肥 氮含量 磷含量 养分
Abstract

华北落叶松(Larix principis-rupprechtti Mayr)人工林是我国北方退耕还林的主要树
种,落叶松人工林土壤质量存在着退化问题,土壤养分不足限制着林木的健康快速发
展。我国人工林面积大,但生产力低下,人工林平均面积储积量与发达国家相比差距
很大,从我国目前林业发展状况来看,需要对人工林进行一些必要的管理措施,其中
施肥是增加土壤养分快速有效的方法。本文以秦岭山脉 20 年生华北落叶松人工林为
研究对象,在土壤养分不足的林地内施氮磷肥,通过收集不同时期华北落叶松人工林
的根茎叶,研究不同施肥配比对落叶松根茎叶氮磷含量及生态化学计量规律的影响,
分析不同生长时期华北落叶松人工林根茎叶氮磷含量的变化规律,为我国落叶松人工
林的健康快速生长提供理论依据。主要研究结果如下:
(1) 分析不同配比施肥对华北落叶松人工林根茎叶氮磷含量的影响,得出施氮磷
肥能显著增加根茎叶中氮磷的含量(p<0.05),施肥量以 N 150kg·hm -2 和 P 2 O 5
75kg·hm -2 (N2P)的配施效果最佳,从 5 月至 10 月,与对照相比,N2P 处理平均提高
叶中氮磷含量分别为20.47%、13.24%,平均提高茎中氮磷含量分别为23.14%、44.38%,
平均提高根中氮磷含量分别为 25.49%、12.84%。落叶松根茎叶氮磷的增加表明施肥
能促进林木的生长。
(2) 分析不同配比施肥对华北落叶松人工林根叶中氮磷比值的影响,表明施肥能
显著影响根茎叶中 N:P 比(p<0.05),具体表现为:施氮肥显著增加 N:P 比,施磷肥显
著降低 N:P 比,氮磷配施的不同对 N:P 比影响不同。单施氮(磷)肥能够增加(减小)N:P
比,这说明施肥降低了氮(磷)对植物生长的限制,本研究中土壤中营养元素氮磷都是
缺乏的,单独施肥比配施对 N:P 的比影响大,并不能说明单施效果好。单施氮(磷)肥
虽然增加(减小)了 N:P 比,增加了植物体内的氮(磷)含量,另一重要元素磷(氮)缺乏,
而植物的生长主要受养分含量低元素的限制,表明本研究中氮磷配施对植物的生长最
有利。
(3) 分析不同时期华北落叶松人工林根茎叶氮磷含量及比值的变化,得出不同时期根茎叶中氮磷的含量不同,并呈现出一定的规律性。根茎叶中氮磷含量的基本规律
是:叶>根>茎。叶中氮磷含量总体趋势是:5 月最大,10 月最小,6 月至 9 月处于平
稳状态,变化不大。茎中氮磷的含量呈现先增加,后降低的趋势,最高在 9 月,最低
在 5 月。根中氮磷含量基本规律是:根中氮的含量呈现降低、增加、降低的趋势,最
高氮含量在 5 月,最低在 10 月,磷含量基本不变,处于平稳状态,最高磷含量在 8
月。不同时期华北落叶松人工林根叶中氮磷的比值呈现一定的规律性,从 5 月至 8
月,叶中氮磷比值呈现连续增加趋势,9 月降低,10 月稍微增加,叶中氮磷比呈现的
整体规律为:先增加再减小,8 月叶中氮磷比值最大,5 月最小。从 5 月至 6 月,根
中氮磷比值明显减小,从 6 月至 10 月呈现波浪式变化,氮变化不大,根中氮磷比呈
现的整体趋势是:减低,氮磷比最大出现在 5 月。
(4)施肥能显著增加土壤速效磷和土壤铵态氮的含量(p<0.05),有效缓解了土壤氮
磷元素不足的状况。施肥能显著降低土壤 pH 值(p<0.05),表明施肥导致土壤酸化,
但随着时间土壤酸化效果逐渐减弱。
关键词:华北落叶松;生态化学计量;施肥;氮含量;磷含量;养分

Other Abstract

North China larch was the main tree species of returning farmland to forest in north China,
soil quality of the tree had the problem of degradation, soil nutrient insufficiency resticted
the healthy and rapid development of this tree. Our country’s plantation area was large,
which had low productivity, the average area of plantation accumulation lags far behind
developed countries. From state of development of our country’s forestry, we had some
necessary management measures to help plantations, of which fertilization was a quick and
effective way to increase soil nutrient. The research object was the 20 years old larch forest
in qinling mountains, under the lack of soil nitrogen and phosphate, we gathered roots,
stems and leaves of larch in different periods behind fertilization, so we could research the
effects of fertilization on nitrogen and phosphorus content of roots, stems and leaves and
on law of ecological stoichiometry in larch, and we could analyze the change rule of this
tree. What we did would provide a theoretical basis for the healthy and rapid gowth of
larch plantation. The main findings were as follows.
(1) Analye the impact of different fertilizer on the content of nitrogen and phosphorus
in the larch, we could kown that fertilization could greatly increase the content in the roots,
stems and leaves(p<0.05), the best amount of fertilization was N 150kg·hm -2 and P 2 O 5
75kg·hm -2 . From May to October, compared with the control group, N2P treatment
increased the nitrogen and phosphorus content in leaves average was 20.47% and 13.24%,
respectively. N2P treatment increased the nitrogen and phosphorus content in stems
average was 23.14% and 44.38%, respectively. N2P treatment increased the nitrogen and
phosphorus content in roots average was 25.49% and 12.84%, respectively. The increase of  the content of N and P in plants showed that fertilization could promote the growth of
trees.
(2) Analye the impact of different fertilizer on the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in
the larch, we could kown that fertilization could significantly influence the ratio of
nitrogen and phosphorus in roots, stems and leaves(p<0.05). The following facts were
shown: application of nitrogen could significantly increase the ratio of nitrogen and
phosphorus, application of phosphorus could significantly reduce the ratio of nitrogen and
phosphorus, various nitrogen and phosphorus proportions had different effects on ratio of
nitrogen and phosphorus. Single nitrogen fertilizer could increase the ratio of nitrogen and
phosphorus, which shown that fertilizer decreased nitrogen limit to the growth of plant,
Single phosphorus fertilizer could decrease the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus, which
shown that fertilizer decreased phosphorus limit to the growth of plant. In this study, the
content of soil nutrient elements nitrogen and phosphorus were lacking, the influence to the
N:P ratio of single fertilizer was bigger than that of nitrogen mixed with phosphorus, which
was not show that single application was better than N-P combined application. The
growth of plants was mainly restricted by low content of nutrient elements, so we could
kown that nitrogen mixed with phosphorus was the best for the growth of plants.
(3) Analyze the change of the content of nitrogen and phosphorus and the ratio of
nitrogen and phosphorus in larch, the result shown that the content of nitrogen and
phosphorus of roots, stems and leaves was different in different period, and the changes
presented certain regularity. The basic rule of the content of nitrogen and phosphorus was:
leaves>roots>stems. The overall trend of the content of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves
was as follows, the content was the largest in May and smallest in October, it was change
little and had a stable state from June to September. The content of nitrogen and
phosphorus in stems increased firstly and then decreased, the highest was in September and
the lowest was in May. The basic law of the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the roots
was as follows, the content of nitrogen in the roots reduced firstly, and then increased,
decreased at last, the maximum content of nitrogen was in May, the minimum was in
October. The content of phosphorus in roots changed very little, the maximum content of
phosphorus was in August. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in leaves and roots of larch
presented certain regularity in different periods, it showed a continuous increasing trend  from May to August, and reduced in September, a slight increase in October. The overall
law about ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in leaves increased firstly and then decreased, the
maximum content was in August and the minimum was in May. The ratio of nitrogen to
phosphorus in roots significantly reduced from May to June, the ratio of nitrogen to
phosphorus in roots presented wave changes from June to October, but it changed little.
The overall law about the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus decreased and the biggest ratio
was in May.
(4) Fertilization could significantly increase the content of soil available phosphorus
and ammonium nitrogen (p<0.05), which effectively alleviated the situation of soil nutrient
deficiencies. Fertilization could significantly reduce soil pH (p<0.05), indicating that
fertilization led to soil acidification which gradually weakened over time.
Keywords:  Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr; Ecological stoichiometry; Fertilization; Nitrogen
content; Phosphorus content; Nutrient.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8954
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张 潘. 施肥对华北落叶松人工林根茎叶氮磷含量及生态化学计 量规律的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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