ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
西北干旱区县域农田生态系统碳足迹 研究
曾宪芳
Subtype硕士
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword平罗县 农田 碳足迹 碳汇 秸秆还田
Abstract

本研究选取西北干旱区宁夏引黄灌区平罗县农田生态系统作为研究对象,选择典
型农田样地,进行野外调查、采样和室内分析。应用 IPCC 法结合碳排放参数,估算
平罗县玉米、水稻、小麦三种主要农作物碳足迹;分析该县近 20 年农田生态系统碳
源汇动态变化及其影响因子;结合平罗县 1981-2010 年秸秆还田情况与农田土壤有机
碳含量变化,分析两者之间的相互关系。主要研究结果如下:
1.基于宁夏平罗县农田生产的实地调查数据,利用碳足迹的基本理论和方法,测
算了该县三种主要农作物碳足迹。玉米、水稻和小麦三种主要作物的碳足迹分别为
931.03±142.90、1487.56±164.59 和 809.75±144.99 kg Ce/hm 2 ·a;碳成本分别为
0.08±0.02、0.17±0.05 和 0.12±0.03 kg Ce/kg。本研究区域农作物碳足迹普遍高于国内
外的研究结果,因此,平罗县农田生态系统有巨大的减排潜力。
2.平罗县玉米、水稻和小麦三种主要农作物碳足迹构成中,施用化肥造成的碳足
迹分别为 677.94±142.09、594.37±107.56 和 537.95±144.99 kg Ce/hm 2 ·a,分别占总碳
足迹的 75%、40%和 66%。其中,氮肥施用的碳足迹均占化肥碳足迹的 96%以上,起
到决定性作用。因此,提高化肥利用率是降低平罗县农田碳足迹的关键。
3. 不同农作物的固碳能力差异较大。平罗县各种作物类型中,粮食作物总产量
所占比例较大,其固碳能力也较强,而玉米的碳吸收能力在粮食作物中更为显著,其
碳效率为 12.07±0.02 kg/kg Ce,较之小麦(8.49±0.03 kg/kg Ce)和水稻(5.94±0.05
kg/kg Ce)要大,即在单位重量碳排放的情况下,玉米的经济产量最大。因此,适当
增大玉米的种植面积是提高平罗县农田碳汇的重要途径。
4.分析平罗县 1991-2010 年农田生态系统碳源汇动态变化情况,将近 20 年的变化
规律分为三个阶段。第一阶段为 1991-1995 年,碳吸收量和碳排放量逐年递增,且前
者始终高于后者,因此,这一阶段碳汇量呈现增长趋势;第二阶段为 1996-2003 年,
碳排放量相对稳定,而碳吸收量因粮食减产而出现减小的情形,因此,碳汇量呈缓慢
减少的趋势;第三阶段为 2004-2010 年,由于优良作物品种的栽培,使得碳吸收量持续增加,而碳排放量因先进的农业技术的应用出现稳中有降的趋势,因此,这一时期
碳汇量大幅增加。说明,平罗县农田生态系统具有碳汇功能,且碳汇能力逐年增强。
5.平罗县 1981-2010 年秸秆还田量逐年递增,近 30 年还田累计量为 136.01 t/ha,
平均还碳量为 66.46 t/ha。农田土壤有机碳平均增幅为 37.41%,土壤碳密度增量为 6.18
t/ha。平罗县近 30 年土壤碳密度增量与还田碳量的比值为 9.29%。可以认为,秸秆还
田在农田固碳功能方面有重要作用。
关键词:平罗县,农田,碳足迹,碳汇,秸秆还田

Other Abstract

Pingluo County farmland ecosystem of Ningxia in the northwest arid areas and the
Yellow River Irrigation District was selected as the research object in this study. Choose
typical sample area farmland, field investigation, sampling and laboratory analysis.
Chemical method was adapted to soil organic carbon and vegetation organic carbon. The
carbon footprint of Pingluo County was calculated based on the IPCC method and the
parameters of carbon emission. The dynamic variation and its impact factors of carbon
source and sink of Pingluo County farmland ecosystem were analyzed. The relation
between straw returning and soil organic carbon was analyzed based on the situation of
straw returning and the variation of soil organic carbon in the period from 1981 to 2010.
The main achievements of this study are listed as follows:
1. The carbon footprint of three main crops in Pingluo County was calculated based
on the investigated data of farmland production in the county by using basic theories and
research approaches of carbon footprint. The carbon footprints of corn, rice and wheat
were 931.03±142.90, 1487.56±164.59 and 809.75±144.99 kg Ce/hm 2 ·a, the carbon costs
were 0.08±0.02, 0.17±0.05 and 0.12±0.03 kg Ce/kg, respectively. The carbon footprint the
main crops in Pingluo County was exceeding the research result domestic and overseas.
Therefore, the potential of emission reduction in Pingluo County farmland ecosystem was
tremendous.
2. In the composition of carbon footprint of rice, corn and wheat, chemical fertilizer
carbon footprint of them were 677.94±142.09, 594.37±107.56 and 537.95±144.99 kg
Ce/hm 2 ·a, occupied 75%、40% and 66% in total carbon footprint, respectively. N fertilizer
carbon footprint of crops occupied more than 96% in chemical fertilizer carbon footprint.
Therefore, increase the use ratio of chemical fertilizer was the key to reduce the farmland
carbon footprint.  3. The carbon fixed ability of difficult crops was different. In the all kinds of crops,
the yield proportion and the carbon fixed ability of grain crops was more than economic
crops and fruits-vegetables crops. The carbon fixed ability of corn was notable especially
in grain crops. The carbon efficiency of corn (12.07±0.02 kg/kg Ce) was larger than rice
(8.49±0.03 kg/kg Ce) and wheat (5.94±0.05 kg/kg Ce), mean that the yields of corn was
the largest under the same carbon emission. So the significant way to increase the carbon
sinks of Pingluo County farmland ecosystem was appropriately expanding sown area of
corn.
4. The dynamic variation of carbon source and sink of Pingluo County farmland
ecosystem was divided into three stages during the last 10 years. The first stage was from
1991 to 1995, the amounts of carbon absorption and emission were increased. The former
was larger than the latter, so the amounts of carbon sink was increased in this stage. The
second stage was from 1996 to 2003, the amount of carbon emission was stable relatively.
The amount of carbon absorption was reduced as the reason of crop failure, so the amounts
of carbon sink was reduced slowly. The third stage was from 2004 to 2010, the amount of
carbon absorption was increased due to the cultivation of fine crops. The amount of carbon
emission was reduced slowly owing to the use of advanced agro-technology. So the
amount of carbon sink was increased substantially. The result indicated that, Pingluo
County farmland ecosystem has carbon sink function, and the ability of carbon sink was
enhancing gradually.
5. The amount of crop straw land-returning of Pingluo County farmland ecosystem
was increased by degrees from 1981 to 2010. The amount of crop straw land-returning was
136.01 t/ha accumulative total, the average amount of carbon land-returning was 66.46 t/ha.
The average increased rage of soil organic carbon was 37.41%, and the increment of soil
carbon density was 6.18 t/ha. The ratio of the increment of soil carbon density and the
average amount of carbon land-returning was 9.29%. It considered that crop straw
land-returning gave the important play to carbon sink function Pingluo County farmland
ecosystem.
Key Words: Pingluo County, farmland ecosystem, carbon footprint, crop straw
land-returning

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8953
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
曾宪芳. 西北干旱区县域农田生态系统碳足迹 研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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