ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
关键需水期 梨枣 生长 对土壤水分的响应研究
张 琳琳
Subtype硕士
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword梨枣 土壤水势 生理生长 茎直径 耗水量 气象因子
Abstract

本文通过对国内外相关研究现状及成果总结分析,针对其存在问题,于米脂县红
枣节水示范基地进行试验,设置 2 个水分处理,研究了 4a 生梨枣连续 3 年关键需水
期(开花坐果期和果实膨大期)不同供水条件下土壤水分动态和耗水状况,揭示了枣
树关键需水期耗水规律,监测不同土壤水势处理条件下土壤性质、枣树茎直径微变化
(包括茎直径日均值 MTD、日最大值 MXTD、日最大值 MNTD 、 日最大收缩量 MDS、
日生长量 DG)、冠层结构等生长生理指标的变化,并结合气象要素(包括参考作物
蒸发蒸散量 ET 0 、水汽压亏缺日均值 VPD)分析梨枣树适宜的栽培气候环境,明确茎
直径微变化与耗水量的主要影响因子,为实现精确灌溉的现代节水灌溉技术提供决策
指标与理论依据。设置 2 个土壤水势处理,即 2010 年 T1:土壤水势控制在-41~-51 kPa
(0.233~0.196 cm 3 /cm 3 )范围内,T2:土壤水势控制在-311~果实萎蔫~-311 kPa
(0.061~果实萎蔫~0.061 cm 3 /cm 3 )范围内;2011 年 T1:土壤水势控制在-41~-51 kPa
(0.233~0.196 cm 3 /cm 3 )范围内,T2:土壤水势控制在水分胁迫~-41 kPa~干旱(水
分胁迫~0.233 cm 3 /cm 3 ~干旱)范围内;2012 年 T1:土壤水势控制在-41~-68kPa
(0.233~0.151 cm 3 /cm 3 )范围内,T2:土壤水势控制在-10~-84 kPa(0.375~0.123
cm 3 /cm 3 )范围内。得出结论如下:
(1) 梨枣关键需水期不同土壤水分处理下, MXTD 曲线变化表现出明显的不同。
其中土壤水分充足时,MXTD 的增长速率快,灌溉有效地促进茎秆直径的生长。土壤
水分不同,枣树 MDS 差异显著,水分不足在一定程度上增大了枣树 MDS。MDS 受
枣树生育期的影响,在开花坐果期 MDS 较大,在果实膨大后期各处理的 MDS 均较小。
(2) 通过连续 3 年对梨枣关键需水期茎直径动态变化有关指标的研究表明,各处
理 MTD 、 MXTD 的变化规律一致,说明 MTD 、 MXTD 可以作为树体生长状况的监测
指标,二者表征植物与土壤水分关系的作用相同。
(3) 通过连续 3 年对梨枣关键需水期耗水状况的研究表明,梨枣耗水量随着土壤
供水量的增加而增大,各个处理日耗水量最大值均出现在灌水后一周内。3 年内各处
理耗水量曲线均表现为递增趋势,在果实膨大期耗水达到最大值,各处理耗水强度均表现为开花坐果期小于果实膨大期。
(4)茎直径微变化各指标受土壤水分和气象因子的综合影响,土壤水分影响枣
树 MDS 对气象变化的敏感度。水分适宜处理枣树 MDS 对气象变化最为敏感,其他水
分处理枣树 MDS 变化规律与其一致,但对气象变化的敏感性较小。不同水分处理梨
枣不同生育期MDS与气象因子关系不同,高水分处理开花坐果期MDS与ET 0 极显著,
其他处理均不显著。
(5)本文通过对气象因素以及充分灌溉条件下梨枣耗水量与茎直径微变化影响
通径分析得出:ET 0 、VPD 与耗水量变化正相关,为决策变量;ET 0 、VPD 与 MXTD 、
MDS 变化正相关,其中 ET 0 为 MXTD 的主要决策变量;耗水量与 MDS 变化负相关,
为主要决策变量,对 MDS 影响作用极显著。综合分析:参考作物蒸发蒸散量 ET 0 是
影响茎直径微变化与耗水量的主要因素,同时说明 MDS 适宜作为枣树水分亏缺的敏
感指标,能够很好地表征梨枣耗水规律。
(6)不同的土壤水分处理下,冠层结构指标(叶面积指数、林隙分数、透光率)
表现明显不同。果实生长期受轻度的水分胁迫均影响冠层结构指标,而恢复灌溉则表
现出一定的补偿效应。不同处理下叶面积指数、林隙分数、透光率具有良好的相关关
系,表现为叶面积指数与林隙分数、透光率均为负相关,林隙分数与透光率正相关。
关键词:梨枣;土壤水势;生理生长;茎直径;耗水量;气象因子

Other Abstract

This paper analyzed the status and results of the research at home and abroad for its
problems, experiment was done at the pear-jujube water-saving demonstration bases in
Mizhi County. In this experiment, two water treatments were set to research the soil
moisture dynamics under different water supply and water conditions of 4 years old
pear-jujube tree in three consecutive years of critical water demand period (flowering fruit
set and fruit enlargement period), which reveals jujube water rules in key water demand
period. The changes of soil properties and growth physiological indexes( such as jujube
tree stem diameter, canopy structure etc. ) were also monitored under different soil water
potential treatment conditions. Combined with the meteorological elements, appropriate
cultural climate and environment of pear-jujube would be analysised, and the main factors
affecting stem diameter Minute changes and the amount of water consumptions would be
clear. All of these can provide decision indicators and theoretical basis to the water-saving
irrigation technologies of precision Irrigation modern. The two water treatments were: T1,
soil water potential is controlled within the range of -41~ -51 kPa (0.233 ~ 0.196 cm 3 /cm 3 );
T2, soil water potential is controlled within the range of -311 ~ fruit wilting~ -311 kPa
(0.061 ~ fruit wilting ~ 0.061 cm 3 /cm 3 ) in 2010. T1, soil water potential is controlled
within the range of -41 ~ -51 kPa (0.233 ~ 0.196 cm 3 /cm 3 ); T2, soil water potential is
controlled within the range of water stress ~-41 kPa ~ arid (water stress ~ 0.233 cm 3 /cm 3 ~
arid) in 2011. T1, soil water potential is controlled within the range of -41 ~ -68 kPa (0.233
~ 0.151 cm 3 /cm 3 ); T2, soil water potential is controlled within the range of -10~-84 kPa
(0.375~0.123 cm 3 /cm 3 )in 2012. The main conclusions were as following:
(1) MXTD curve showed significantly different under different soil moisture
treatments in the critical water demand period of pear-jujube. The lower soil moisture, the  greater DG and the faster MXTD growth rate. Irrigation can effectivly promote the growth
of stem diameter. Jujube MDS differences significantly with the different soil moisture.
water shortage increases jujube MDS to a certain extent. The MDS are greater in
flowering and fruit setting period, but smaller in the late of fruit enlargement period, each
processing MDS are small. Diurnal variation of pear-jujube stem diameter is influenced by
the growth duration.
(2) The research of stem diameter dynamic changes indicators of pear-jujube in three
consecutive years of flowering fruit set and fruit enlargement period show that the
variation of MTD and MXTD are consistency in each processing, and the growth rate of
them differences due to different water treatments. This tell us that the MTD and MXTD
can be used as indicators of tree growth, and they has same result on characterization of
both plants and soil water.
(3) The research of water consumption conditions of pear-jujube in three consecutive
years of flowering fruit set and fruit enlargement period show that the water consumption
increases with the increase of the amount of soil water supply, the maximum daily water
consumption of each treatment was appeared in one week after irrigation. Each water
consumption curve showed an increasing trend in three years, and water consumption
reached the maximum in the the fruit expansion period. The water consumption intensity
of flowering and fruit setting period is less than fruit enlargement period.
(4) Soil moisture and meteorological factors has a combined effects on the change of
stem diameter indicators, soil moisture influence the sensitivity of jujube MDS to weather
changes. The jujube tree MDS is most sensitive to the changes of weather in the treatment
which water is suitable. For other water treatments, jujube MDS variation consistent with it,
but less volatile.
(5) In this paper, the path analysis of meteorological factors as well as water
consumption in full irrigation conditions with the changes of stem diameter tell us: ET 0 、
VPD are positive related with water consumption changes, they are decision variables.
ET 0 、VPD are positive related with MXTD、MDS,in this, ET 0  is the main decision variables
of MXTD, Water consumption has negative correlation with MDS changes, as the main
decision variable, water consumption has a very significant impact on MDS.
Comprehensive analysis: ET 0 is the main factor to affect the change of stem diameter and  water consumption, MDS as the appropriate moisture deficit sensitive indicator of pear
jujube, can well characterize the laws of water consumption.
(6) The performance of canopy structure indicators (leaf area index, gap fraction, light
transmission rate) is significantly different under different soil moisture treatments. Mild
water stress in fruit growth period affect canopy structure indicators, and the rehabilitation
of irrigation show some compensation effect. Leaf area index, gap fraction and the
transmittance has a good correlation under different treatments, leaf area index has a
negatively correlated with gap fraction and light transmittance, while, gap scores positively
correlated with light transmission rate.
Key words: pear-jujube; Soil water potential; Physiological growth; Stem diameter; water
consumption; meteorological factors

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8951
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张 琳琳. 关键需水期 梨枣 生长 对土壤水分的响应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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