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水蚀风蚀交错区植被—土壤水分作用深度与土壤呼吸影响因素
高 宇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor樊军
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Abstract

为评估黄土高原水蚀风蚀交错区植被—土壤水分作用深度以及土壤呼吸速率季
节变化影响因素及其对不同土地利用方式的响应,于2009-2012 年植物生长季节,选
取六道沟小流域不同土地利用类型,对以上过程进行了研究。结果表明:该区裸地、
农地、撂荒地、人工草(灌)地(苜蓿地、柠条地、沙打旺地)、当地典型草地(荒
草地、长芒草地)在平水年及干旱年,土壤水分均表现为负平衡;丰水年部分样地土
壤水分得到补充。平水年以及干旱年(2010~2011 年)对植物耗水深度进行为柠条地
(160~260cm)>撂荒地(140~260cm)>沙打旺地(120~260cm)>苜蓿地(120~160cm)
≈长芒草地(120~160cm)≈荒草地(160cm)>农地(140cm)>裸地(120cm),
降水补充深度为农地(140cm)>裸地(120cm)>撂荒地(100cm)>荒草地(90cm)
>长芒草地(70~140cm)>沙打旺地(70~120cm)>苜蓿地(70~90cm)>柠条地
(70cm)。土壤水分消耗深度普遍大于补偿深度,土壤储水长期处于负补偿的状态。
丰水年(2012 年)裸地、苜蓿地、荒草地与沙打旺地土壤水分并未显示出明显负平
衡过程,但柠条地耗水深度依然达到260cm,其他样地依次为撂荒地>农地>长芒草
地;降水入渗深度排序:农地(260cm)>裸地(220cm)>撂荒地(180cm)=柠
条地(180cm)>荒草地(160cm)=苜蓿地(160cm)>长芒草地(120cm)>沙打
旺地(60cm)。各样地2010~2012 年地上干生物量平均值排序:柠条地(464 g•m-2)
>撂荒地(377 g•m-2)>苜蓿地(357 g•m-2)>沙打旺地(314 g•m-2)>荒草地(214
g•m-2)≈长芒草地(213 g•m-2)>农地(41 g•m-2)。除撂荒地外,高生物产量的人
工草(灌)耗水量高,耗水深度也深,因此在退耕还林(草)过程中,应该充分考虑
不同植被类型的年度水分交换深度,采取措施降低消耗深度,增加入渗深度。
同时,应用红外气体分析法对土壤呼吸速率进行测定,并结合土壤水、热与养分
因子进行分析。结果表明:水蚀风蚀交错区退耕会显著改变土壤呼吸强度,该区典型
农地的土壤呼吸速率为1.06~1.39μmol•m-2•s-1,农地转变为裸地的过程中,土壤呼吸速率下降为原来的42~63%,尤其在植物生长旺季的7、8、9 三个月下降明显;农地
弃耕后建设人工草(灌)地使土壤呼吸提高了109~200%,农田撂荒样地土壤呼吸速
率约为农地的79~179%,农地略高于长芒草地和荒草地。该区土壤呼吸速率变化的
主导因子为土壤温度,尤其与10cm 土层土壤温度相关性最好,土壤呼吸速率与土壤
含水量之间拟合优度较差;但土壤温度与含水量双因子指数模型Rs=a•ebT•θc 对该地
区土壤呼吸速率的拟合均优于相应的单因子模型。10cm 土层的土壤呼吸温度敏感性
系数(Q10 值)排序为:无植被生长样地(裸地,2.09)>农地(农地、坡地农地,2.07~
1.69)>撂荒地(坡地撂荒地、撂荒地、梯田撂荒地,1.71~1.53)>草(灌)地(柠
条地、苜蓿地、长芒草地、坡地苜蓿地、荒草地,1.51~1.42),可见随着未来气温的
升高,在生态系统土壤呼吸整体有可能增加的背景下,退耕还林(草)会降低土壤呼
吸对温度的敏感性,且Q10 值随土壤含水量降低而降低。土壤呼吸速率与土壤有机质、
土壤全氮之间有极显著的正相关关系。因此,水蚀风蚀交错区土壤呼吸受到土壤温度、
水分、养分及土地利用方式的显著影响。
关键词:水蚀风蚀交错区;土壤含水量;消耗和补充深度;土壤呼吸;土地利用方式;
土壤温度;土壤水分;土壤养分

Other Abstract

In order to assessing the impact of depth of soil moisture depleted by plants and
infiltrated after precipitation and different land-use types with different soil moisture and
temperature on seasonal soil respiration, we chose typical land-use plots in the water-wind
erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau at Liudaogou Watershed during growth
seasons of the year 2009~2012. Results showed that the soil moisture of bare land, farm
land, abandoned land, artificial grass (shrubs) lands (alfalfa land, C. Korshinkii land and A.
adsurgens land) and local typical grassland (Wild grass land and S. bungeana land) all
reduced during the normal flow (2010) and dry (2011) years; soil moisture of some plots
were added in the high flow year (2012). In the normal and dry years, depths of soil
moisture depleted by plants followed the rule: C. Korshinkii land (160~260cm) >
abandoned land (140~260cm) > A. adsurgens land (120~260cm) > alfalfa land
(120~160cm)≈S. bungeana land (120~160cm)≈Wild grass land (160cm)>farm land
(140cm)>bare land (120cm), while infiltration ones were farm land (140cm)>bare land
(120cm) > abandoned land (100cm) >Wild grass land (90cm) > S. bungeana land
(70~140cm)>A. adsurgens land (70~120cm)>alfalfa land (70~90cm)>C. Korshinkii
land (70cm). The depth of soil moisture depletion was deeper than infiltration in common.
In the high flow year (2012), there was no negative balance of water storage in the plots of
bare land, alfalfa land, Wild grass land and A. adsurgens land, but soil moisture in C.
Korshinkii land was depleted form soil surface till 260cm layer, the others were in order of
abandoned land>farm land>S. bungeana land; depths of soil moisture infiltrated after
precipitation were as follow: farm land (260cm)>bare land (220cm)>abandoned land  (180cm)=C. Korshinkii land (180cm)> Wild grass land (160cm)=alfalfa land (160cm)
>S. bungeana land (120cm)>A. adsurgens land (60cm). The above-ground dry biomass
of typical plants were C. Korshinkii land (464 g·m-2)> abandoned land (377 g·m-2)>
alfalfa land (357 g·m-2)>A. adsurgens land (314 g·m-2)>Wild grass land (214 g·m-2)≈S.
bungeana land (213 g·m-2)>farm land (41 g·m-2). Artificial grass (shrubs) lands which
had high biomass also showed an appearance of high infiltrated mass and depths. As a
result, we should fully consider the annual exchange depth of soil moisture during the
management of land conversion from farm-land back to grass-land or shrub-land, then take
certain measures to reduce the depths depletion of soil moisture and increase the
infiltration.
Soil respiration was measured by the Closed-Dynamic-Chamber Infrared gas analyzer
(IRGA), and the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature & soil moisture
& soil nutrient were analyzed. Results showed that the management of land conversion
from farm-land back to grass-land or shrub-land would bring a significant change to soil
respiration in the water-wind erosion crisscross region, the soil respiration of farmland was
1.06~1.39μmol•m-2•s-1, and soil respiration decreased to 42~63% in the management of
land conversion from farm-land back to bare land, there was more decrement especially in
July, August and September; The annual soil respiration rate was developed by 109~200%
following the conversion of abandoned plough-land to artificial grass (shrubs) lands,
79~179% to abandoned land, but a little higher to wild grass land or S. bungeana land. The
soil respiration was dominantly controlled by the soil temperature, and 10cm soil
temperature had the best dependency of soil respiration; But there was a poor correlation
between soil respiration and soil moisture; The index models of double-factor (soil
respiration fitting with soil temperature and soil moisture, Rs=a•ebT•θc) was better than any
single factor ones. We got a sort by the Q10 value at 10cm soil layer in a descending
manner: plot with no plants (bare land, 2.09)> farm lands (crop land and crop land on slope,
2.07~1.69)> abandoned lands (abandoned land on slope, abandoned land and abandoned
land on terrace, 1.71~1.53)> grass (shrubs) lands (C. Korshinkii land, alfalfa land, S.
bungeana land, alfalfa land on slope and wild grass land, 1.51~1.42). In case of the
temperature increasing, the management of land conversion from farm-land back to
grass-land or shrub-land could reduce the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature  under the background of increasing soil respiration in the ecological system, and the Q10
would decrease with soil moisture. Soil respiration could be extremely significantly related
with soil organic matter and total nitrogen. Therefore, soil respiration in the water-wind
erosion crisscross region was significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, soil
nutrient and land use patterns.
Keywords: Water-wind erosion crisscross region; Soil moisture content; Soil moisture
depletion and infiltration depth; Soil respiration; Land-use patterns; Soil temperature; Soil
moisture; soil nutrient

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8947
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
高 宇. 水蚀风蚀交错区植被—土壤水分作用深度与土壤呼吸影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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