ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土丘陵区生态脆弱性演变及其驱动力分析
雷波
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor焦峰
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword延河流域 生态脆弱性 空间主成分分析 遥感 地理信息系统 时空演变
Abstract

生态环境是人类生存和发展的基本条件,是经济社会不断发展的物质基础。随着社会经济
的发展和生态环境问题的日益突出,生态环境脆弱性已成为全球环境变化和可持续发展研究的
核心问题之一,得到了越来越多学者的关注。
延河流域位于陕北黄土高原中部,属于典型的黄土丘陵沟壑区。区域自然、人文、经济、
地理条件复杂,加之自然灾害以及人为因素的影响,使得该区生态环境不断恶化,水土流失严
重,生态环境脆弱。开展延河流域生态脆弱性评价研究,及时掌握研究区内生态环境现状及空
间格局,对于区域的生态建设和可持续发展具有十分重要的意义。
本研究以黄土丘陵区延河流域为研究对象,借助RS 与GIS 手段,运用空间主成分分析方
法,从区域和小流域两个尺度上对该区生态环境脆弱性进行了评价,分析了该区生态脆弱性空
间分异特征与演变特征,并初步探讨了该区生态脆弱性演变的驱动机制。主要结论如下:
(1)延河流域生态环境脆弱度整体呈降低趋势,但仍处于脆弱状态,生态环境脆弱性以
中度等级为主。微度和轻度脆弱区主要分布在宝塔区东南部和延长县,是延河流域生态环境质
量最好的区域;中度脆弱区主要分布在安塞县东南部、延川县及宝塔区;重度和极度脆弱区面
积占全区面积的11%左右,主要分布在靖边县(延河流域部分)、志丹县西北部、安塞县西北
部及子长县部分区域。从总的空间分布格局来看,研究区内的生态脆弱性从西北到东南逐渐降
低。
(2)不同植被带典型小流域生态脆弱性评价结果显示,草原带典型小流域整体上处于重
度脆弱水平,森林草原带典型小流域整体上处于中度脆弱水平,森林带典型小流域整体上处于
轻度脆弱水平,相同植被带内部典型小流域生态脆弱性情况基本相似。
(3)各植被带典型小流域生态脆弱等级随坡度变化均表现出一定的规律,微度脆弱主要
分布在3°以下,而后随着坡度的增大,呈现出“减小-增大-减小”的波浪式变化趋势;其他各
脆弱等级随坡度增大均呈现先增大后减小的变化趋势;且均在15°~35°之间达到最大值。同时,
特殊的地貌特征和侵蚀环境,使得该区生态最脆弱的地方位于中低海拔段的沟坡位置。
(4)时间序列的动态分析评价表明,1990-2000 年期间,延河流域生态环境质量整体呈下
降趋势;2000-2010 年间该区生态环境逐渐改善并趋于稳定。在空间层面,离城市中心越远,
生态脆弱度越低;离河流越远,生态脆弱度越高。
(5)采用空间主成分分析法,对延河流域生态脆弱性驱动力进行研究,初步确定了影响
该区生态环境脆弱性的四大驱动力因子,即地形状况、植被覆盖度、土地利用类型及气象因素。
关键词:延河流域;生态脆弱性;空间主成分分析;遥感;地理信息系统;时空演变

Other Abstract

Ecological environment is not only the basic needs for human survival and development, but
also the material foundation of economic and social development. With the development of society
and economy,the eco-environment problem has increased dramatically. Nowadays, its vulnerability
is one of the top concerns in global environmental change and sustainable development project, and
has attracted many scholars’ attentions.
Yanhe Basin is located in the central Loess Plateau of the northern Shaanxi province, which is a
typical gully region of Loess Hilly Region. The complex conditions there, combination of regional
natural, cultural, economic, and geographical, as well as the detrimental impact of natural disasters
and environmental destructive activities, made the basin suffers from fragile ecological environment,
serious soil erosion, and fragile ecological environment. Evaluating the ecological vulnerability of
Yanhe Basin and grasping the ecological environment and spatial pattern has a great significance to
ecological construction and the sustainable development.
Take the Yanhe Basin of Loess hilly region as study area, based on the RS and GIS technologies
and the method of spatial principal component analysis (SPCA), the integrated assessment of
eco-environment vulnerability are studied on two scales from regional to watershed, systematic
analysis of the ecological vulnerability spatial differentiation of Yan Basin. And further discuss the
vulnerability variation characteristics on a regional scale, preliminary study on its driven mechanism.
The main conclusions are as follows:
(1) Ecological environment vulnerability of Yanhe Basin was decreased as a whole, but still in a
fragile state, mainly at moderate level. Slight and light fragile areas are mainly distributed in the
southeast Baota District and Yanchang county, which is the best ecological environment quality area
in the Yanhe Basin; the moderate fragile areas are mainly located in the southeast of Ansai County,
Yanchuan County and Baota District; severe and extremely vulnerable area accounts for about 11%
of the whole area, mainly in Jingbian County, northwest of Zhidan County, northwest of Ansai
County and the part region of Zichang county. From the point of view of the overall pattern of spatial
distribution, the study area’s ecological fragility gradually decreased from northwest to southeast.
(2) Eco-environment vulnerability assessment of typical small watersheds in different
vegetation zones show that the eco-environmental vulnerability in steppe zone was at heavy level,
forest steppe zone at medial level and forest zone at light level, the ecological fragility in typical  small watershed internal of the same vegetation zone are similar.
(3) The vulnerability grade of typical small watershed in different vegetation zones all showed a
certain regularity with the slope changing. Slight vulnerability was mainly distributed within 3
degree, and then appeared wavy changing trend of "decreasing - increasing – decreasing ", the other
grades increased first and then decreased with slope increasing. And all reached the maximum
between 15 degree and 35 degree. At the same time, special geomorphic features and erosion
environment, making the most ecological vulnerable areas located in gully slope.
(4) The dynamic evaluation of the time series shows that, during the period 1990-2000, the
ecological environment of Yanhe Basin showed downtrend at whole; and then gradually improved
and stabilized between 2000 and 2010. In the space level, the farther away from the city center, the
lower degree of ecological vulnerability; and farther from the river, the higher degree of ecological
vulnerability.
(5) Adopt the mathod of space principal component analysis to study the driving force of the
ecological vulnerability in Yanhe Basin, initially determines four major driving factors are
influencing eco-ecological vulnerability in the region, that is terrain condition, vegetation cover, land
use types and meteorological factors.
Key words:Yanhe watershed, Eco-environment vulnerability, Spatial principal component analysis,
Remote sensing, Geographical information system, Spatial-temporal variation

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8945
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
雷波. 黄土丘陵区生态脆弱性演变及其驱动力分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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