ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
输水干渠工程生态修复原理与模式研究
郑 良 勇
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李占 斌
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword输水干渠工程 生态修复 立地类型 高陡边坡 干根网生态护坡 非输 水断面
Abstract

本研究以南水北调输水东线首段开工建设的济平干渠工程为研究对象,以长
距离输水工程的安全稳定与生态和谐为研究目标,针对南水北调输水工程建设和
运行管理过程中存在的安全稳定和各种生态扰动问题,综合运用水土保持学、植
物学、恢复生态学、景观生态学、风景园林学等多学科交叉,采用现场调查取样、
分析试验与工程实践相结合的研究方法,对南水北调输水干渠工程的工程安全与
生态修复进行了系统的研究。主要研究结论如下:
(1)针对大型输水干渠建设的生态扰动实际和不同部位的安全稳定要求,
系统分析了工程自然条件、安全稳定运行与生态恢复因素之间的互作关系,确定
了相应的生态修复方案。对研究区的立地因子和立地类型进行了分析,将整个工
程区域划分为5 个立地类型,70 个地块,并根据各地块立地条件及生态修复与
边坡安全稳定的需求,确定了生态修复方案。
(2)针对济平干渠工程高陡土质边坡的实际,提出了“陡坡加筋稳固+坡面
截洪排水+植物生态防护”三位一体的高陡边坡输水干渠的生态修复方法,在刁
山坡高陡边坡段得到具体应用并取得了良好的综合防护效果。
采取加筋、减荷、密实和防水于一体的综合技术对高陡边坡进行加筋稳固,
使整个边坡平均坡度在1:2~1:2.5,以确保加固后高陡边坡输水渠的安全运行。
试验采用的坡面整修减荷和采用TGDG50 单向格栅加筋固坡技术取得了良好的应
用效果,处理后的坡面抗滑系数正常工况下为1.38。
为有效排出坡面降水,对高陡边坡研究采用了由渠口以上截排水、渠坡排水
和输水渠戗台防冲工程三部分组成的排水系统,达到了预期的效果。
试验采用的椰纤维网液压喷播植草护坡技术对高陡边坡尤其是碎石质边坡
进行植被恢复,显示了适应性强,成坪快、植被恢复好等优势。
(3)对黄河漫滩洪水对防洪堤影响分析的基础上,提出干根网生态护坡和
坦萨植被网生态护坡结合的方法,并在济平干渠防洪堤生态防护中得到了成功地
应用。通过对吉林实生柳、垂爆柳和山东速生柳三种树种作为苗干的干根网进行对
比研究可知,三种苗干组成的干根网均具有成林快、生长迅速、固土效果好等特
点。对于济平干渠而言,山东速生柳是适宜的干根网苗木选材。
通过对高羊茅+黑麦草混播、白三叶草、狗牙根三种草种的防护效果进行试
验分析,狗牙根+坦萨植被网的生态防护效果最好。
(4)提出了草皮护坡、乔草护坡、灌草护坡和乔灌草护坡共4 大模式7 个
系列22 种植物配置模式。
阔草系列(BG)是在渠道左堤戗台以上内边坡种植狗牙根,左侧堤顶道路外
侧品字型行带状种植乔木(树种选择大叶女贞、国槐、速生柳等),作为行道树。
在渠道右侧戗台以上内坡和堤顶种植乔木(树种选择国槐、速生柳、法桐、白蜡、
欧美杨等)构成生态防护林网,在右侧堤防外坡种植干根网。右侧征地线内侧种
植枸橘作为防护生态篱笆墙。
阔灌草系列(BSG)是在渠道左堤戗台以上内边坡种植麦冬草,其上种植灌
木(树种为小龙柏、金叶女贞、小叶黄杨、红叶小檗等)形成灌木模纹,左侧堤
顶道路外侧品字型行带状种植乔木(树种选择大叶女贞、国槐、速生柳等),作
为行道树。在渠道右侧戗台以上内坡堤脚种植大叶女贞,右侧堤坡种植麦冬草和
灌木模纹(树种选择龙柏球、大叶黄杨球、海桐球等),在右侧堤顶和堤防外坡
种植国槐等。右侧征地线内侧种植枸橘作为防护生态篱笆墙。
(5)提出了大型输水干渠生态美化修复模式。针对济平干渠管理区节点的
生态修复和绿化美化需求,对济平干渠沿线设置的16 处管理区节点的生态修复
技术进行了研究,确定了以龙为意、以珠为形的生态修复理念,在对各管理区立
地条件、功能分析的基础上,提出了生态公园型和苗木基地型两种生态修复模式;
同时提出了各种树木的种植技术和管理区园路和广场铺装、混凝土路面浇筑和灌
溉系统安装的技术。
关键词:输水干渠工程 生态修复 立地类型 高陡边坡 干根网生态护坡 非输
水断面

Other Abstract

The South-to-North Water Transfer Canal Project is very important to the water
resources distribution of China, and may bring many environment problems.The
paper studied the Jiping Canal which was the first construction segment and passed
state acceptance earliest of the east route of South-to-North Water Transfer Canal
Project. The goal is to ensure the safety, stability and ecological harmony of the
long-distance water transfer project. In order to solve the variety of ecological
restoration issues exist for the construction of water diversion project and operational
management process, different knowledges of the soil and water conservation, botany,
restoration ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture and other
multi-disciplinary knowledge were used. A systematic study to the ecological
restoration of the water diversion project was carried through combining the basic
data collection, theory research, on-site investigation sampling and analysis
experiment combined with engineering practice. The main conclusions are as follows:
(1)In order to solve the safety and stability problems of the different sections
of the large-scale water transfer Canal, combinded with the ecological disturbance ,
site factors and site types in the study area were analyzed. The entire project area is
divided into five site types and the 70 plots. The ecological restoration programs were
determined based on the site types and slope stability requirements.
(2)Due to the actual situation and the ecological restoration needs of Diao
hillside high and steep slopes in Jiping main canal, the trinity high and steep slope
ecological restoration of “steep reinforced solid + slope cross-sectional flood
drainage + Plant ecological protection" in steep slope segment was applied concretely
and had a well overall protective effect.
The integrated technology of taking reinforcement, offload, dense and
waterproof in one was reinforced in the high and steep slope. The entire average slope  gradient was controlled between 1:2 and 1:2.5 to ensure the safe operation of the
drains in high and steep slope. The technology of slope less charge and one-way
TGDG50 slope reinforcement adopted in the test functioned effectively. The treated
sliding coefficient under normal operating conditions was 1.38.
For the effective discharge of the slope precipitation, a drainage system
composed of three parts by the above cut-off drainage outfalls, drain slope drainage
and drains protection works in high and steep slope, achieve the desired results
indicated a good drainage effect.
The technology using fiber network hydraulic spraying slope stabilization had a
fast adaptability, fast turf, good vegetation restoration effect especially in the gravel
slope revegetation on high and steep slope and achieve the desired results showed a
good ecological repair function.
(3)The technology of dry root net ecological slope protection and tanza
vegetation net ecological slope protection was studied based on the analysis of floods
on the Yellow River floodplain levees effect and applied in the ecological protection
of the Jiping main canal levees.
Based on the study of three species of Jilin seedling willow, vertical explosive
willow and Shandong speed raw willow, the dry root seedlings stem system composed
of the three seedling willow stem had the characteristics of fast forest forming, rapid
growth, effectively soil conservation and so on. For Jiping main canal, Shandong
fast-growing willow is suitable for the dry root seedlings stem system.
The test analysis of protection effect for the three grass species (tall fescue + mixed
ryegrass, white clover and bermudagrass) indicated that the best ecology protection
effect was bermudagrass + tanza vegetation net.
(4)Based on the analyzing of the non-conveyance section in the Jiping Canal of
South-to-North Water Diversion Project, we proposed 4 modes, 7 series and 22 kinds
of plant configuration modes including grass slope protection, arbor and grass slope
protection, shrub and grass slope protection and arbor shrub and grass slope
protection for the different actual situation and the ecological restoration demand of
the different channels. At the same time, we proposed the corresponding plant
configuration technology.  The width of grass family (BG) was as follows: planting bermudagrass above
within the channels of the left embankment berm slope, planting trees on the left
lateral and twin row strip of dike road (selection of tree species Ligustrum, Sophora
japonica, fast-growing willow etc.) as street trees, planting trees on the right side of
the berm and on the top of dike channels (selection of tree species Sophora japonica,
fast-growing willow, Fatong, ash, poplar etc.) constituting the ecological shelter forest
net, planting dry root network in the outer slope of the right side of the dike, planting
Juju inside right side of the land acquisition line as the protective ecological fences.
The width of shrub and grass family (BSG) was as follows: planting japonicus
above the channels left embankment berm within the slope, planting shrubs (small
cypress trees, golden privet, Buxus microphylla, Berberis etc.) forming shrub-mode
pattern, planting trees on the left lateral goods font row strip of the Tiding road
(Ligustrum, Sophora japonica, fast-growing willow etc.) as street trees, planting
Ligustrum in the right side of slope toe in the berm channels, planting japonicus and
shrub-mode pattern in the right side of the embankment (Cypress, Euonymus,
Pittosporum etc.), planting Sophora in the right side of the dike and the dike outstation
etc, planting Juju as a protective ecological fences inside of the right side of the land
acquisition line.
(5)The ecological landscape restoration of the large-scale water transfer Canal
was proposed.We studied the ecological restoration technology of the 16 management
district node along the Jiping Canal due to the ecological restoration and green
landscaping demands and identified the concept of ecological restoration taking
dragon as thinking and taking bead as shape. Two ecological restoration models which
were Eco-park model and nursery stock base model were proposed based on site
conditions and functional analysis of the management area. At the same time, we
proposed the technologies of kinds of tree planting and road and square pavement of
management area, concrete pavement placement and irrigation system installation.
Keywords: Water Transfer Canal Project, ecological restoration, site types, high
and steep slope, ecologically protected slope by dry root net system, non-conveyance
section

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8938
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郑 良 勇. 输水干渠工程生态修复原理与模式研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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