ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
不同水肥对日光温室番茄品质和抗氧化系统 及土壤环境的影响
林兴军
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor梁银丽
2011-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword温室番茄 水肥水平 土壤温度 果实品质 抗氧化酶系统
Abstract

干旱胁迫是全球范围内影响植物生存、生长和分布的最重要环境因子。黄土丘陵
区是典型的半干旱地区,由于生态环境的脆弱性和长期人类活动的干扰以及过度利
用,导致水土流失加剧。由于经济、技术落后等原因,蔬菜生产上存在过量施肥、浇
水等现象,因此深入研究黄土丘陵区设施蔬菜对水肥环境的响应机制和生理生态适
应,提高蔬菜品质和产量具有非常重要的理论和实践意义。
本文以黄土丘陵区广泛种植的温室蔬菜番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)为研究对
象,采用人工控制试验方法,系统研究了番茄对不同水肥条件的响应,探讨了番茄的
抗旱能力。试验设计三个水分水平(高水:土壤相对含水量95%±5%、中水:土壤相
对含水量:75%±5%、低水:土壤相对含水量:55%±5%)和两个肥料水平(中肥:
600Kg·hm-2 N+420 Kg·hm-2 P2O5+718 Kg·hm-2 K2O 、低肥:420Kg·hm-2 N+294 Kg·hm-2
P2O5+ 504 Kg·hm-2 K2O) 共6 个处理对番茄的生理、品质和抗氧化酶系统进行了研究。
2009 年和2010 年连续两年田间试验研究了不同蔬菜适应性,不同水肥对日光温室水
热环境和番茄植株生长发育,果实产量品质及抗氧化酶系统的影响,主要结果如下:
(1)杨凌地区温度条件能够满足黄瓜、番茄等果类蔬菜正常生长发育的需要,
延安、榆林地区在12 月和1 月份需加强保温才能满足黄瓜、番茄等果类蔬菜正常生
长发育的需要,叶菜类蔬菜对温度和积温要求低,适应性强,在日光温室保温等条件
相对较差的地区,可以在冬季发展叶菜类蔬菜生产。
(2)温室番茄土壤含水量主要受灌水量的影响,与施氮量关系较小;表层土壤
含水量变化幅度较大,随着土层加深,含水量变化幅度减少。温室番茄在相同肥料条
件下,土壤呼吸速率随土壤灌水量增加而增加。在相同灌水量条件下,随施氮量的减
少,土壤微生物活性及土壤呼吸强度均受到抑制。不同水肥对土壤pH 影响与对EC
影响相似,pH 和EC 在垂直方向上影响较小,在水平方向上影响较大,增施肥料可以显著增加土壤电导率。在施肥量相同的情况下,随着灌水量的增加,土壤电导率降
低。温室番茄在不同水肥处理条件下,土壤温度变化与气温变化有极显著正相关关系。
土壤含水量与土壤温度存在显著负相关关系,随土层深度增加,土壤温度滞后效应增
大。在高水条件下,土壤温度滞后效应随施肥量增加而增大;在亏缺灌溉条件下,土
壤温度滞后效应随施肥量增加而减少。
(3)不同水肥处理对番茄产量的影响效果不同。番茄产量随着灌水量的增加而
增加,但果实品质下降,水分利用效率下降。番茄产量随着肥料施用量的增加而提高。
果实品质与番茄受干旱程度有显著关系,亏缺灌溉提高了果实品质, 但灌水量过多,
果实中Vc 含量反而下降。在相同肥料条件下,随灌水量减少番茄果实中Vc 含量增
加,在相同水分条件下,随肥料量的增加,可溶性糖,有机酸减少。
(4)温室番茄在水分亏缺下番茄植物体内SOD、POD、CAT 和APX 的酶活性
会升高。CAT 活性和SOD 酶活性在干旱条件下较高,而POD 和APX 酶活性在适度
干旱条件下较高,适量的肥料可提高功能叶片抗氧化酶活性,肥料水平对叶片中
POD,APX 酶活性没有显著影响,对叶片中SOD, CAT 酶活性产生显著影响;肥料
对果实中SOD, POD,CAT,APX 酶活性都产生显著影响。温室番茄果实中APX 保
持着较高水平,保护果实免受氧化伤害中起着重要作用,而SOD, POD,CAT 活性较
低。叶片中4 种保护酶活性对土壤水分条件反应敏感,保持较高活性。叶片中SOD,
CAT,APX 3 种酶的活性约为果实中酶活性的2.5-4 倍,叶片中POD 酶活性为果实中
酶活性的35-55 倍。果实品质与抗氧化酶活性有显著正相关性。亏缺灌溉提高了果实
品质,但同时也增加了自由氧的含量。
因此,不同肥水对番茄植株品质和抗氧化系统及土壤环境产生显著影响。在高水
条件下,土壤温度滞后效应随施肥量增加而增大;在亏缺灌溉条件下,土壤温度滞后
效应随施肥量增加而减少。pH 和EC 在垂直方向上变化较小,在水平方向上变化较
大。在干旱胁迫条件下,植株通过降低果实水分含量,增加可溶性糖,有机酸,可溶
性蛋白含量提高渗透调节能力,增加Vc 含量与提高抗氧化酶活性一起共同抵御干旱
胁迫。番茄果实通过增加这些非酶抗氧化剂和酶抗氧化剂含量来共同保护番茄果实免
受干旱胁迫。因此从增加番茄产量和品质,降低自由氧离子含量,提高水分利用效率
角度考虑,处理WmFm 即75%田间持水量与600Kg·hm-2 N+420 Kg·hm-2 P2O5+718
Kg·hm-2 K2O 施肥量为较优组合。
关键词:温室番茄; 水肥水平; 土壤温度;果实品质;抗氧化酶系统

Other Abstract

Drought is the most important factor limiting plant establishment, growth and
distribution in many regions of the world. The loess hilly region is a typical semi-arid and
arid region in northwest of China. The harsh environments and long-term anthropogenic
disturbance had resulted in severe soil erosion and water loss, vegetation degradation and
fragile ecosystems. Due to economic and technique problems, fertilizer and soil water are
applied excessively in vegetable field. Therefore, The research on responses of vegetable in
greenhouse to water and fertilizer deficit conditions and their eco-physiological adaptation
strategies to drought environment in the loess hilly regions could provide insights into the
improvement of the soil water and fertilizer management, improved vegetable quality and
yield.and therefore, are of great theoretical and practical significance.
In this paper, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) which is plant widespread in the
Loess hilly region in greenhouse was chosen as experimental material to study the effects
of water and fertilizer on fruit quality,yield and enenzy activity in fruit and leaves. Using
the method of manual control experiments, a total of six treatments with three soil moisture
levels: water deficit (Wl, 55%±5% of soil holding capacity), moderate irrigation (Wm,
75%±5% of soil holding capacity ), high irrigation (Wh, 95%±5% of soil holding capacity)
and two levels of fertilizer application: deficit fertilizer (Fl, 420Kg·hm-2 N+294 Kg·hm-2
P2O5+ 504 Kg·hm-2 K2O) ,and moderate fertilizer (Fm, 600Kg·hm-2 N+420 Kg·hm-2
P2O5+718 Kg·hm-2 K2O) were established. The following results were obtained.
(1)The vegetables adaptation in Yangling is better than that in Yan'an and Yulin. The  temperature in December and January can not meet the cucumber, tomatoes fruit vegetable
normal growth and development needs in Yan'an and Yulin. Therefore, this period should
be mainly based on improving the greenhouse temperature. Some measures such as
covering straw mat at night, wiping the dust on the films and other insulation measures can
be taken to increase the temperature of greenhouse. Since leafy vegetables can grow at
lower temperature and accumulated temperature and have higher adaptability, therefore
these areas which have relatively poor heating conditions can plant leafy vegetables to
meet the needs of people in winter.
(2)Soil moisture content was mainly affect by irrigation, not by nitrogen level. The
soil water content in surface changed significantly. With the deeper of soil, the changing
magnitude of soil water content decreased. Irrigation mainly effected soil water content in
0-40 cm soil deepth. In the same fertilizer conditions, soil respiration increased with soil
irrigation increased. In the same irrigation conditions, soil microbial activity and soil
respiration were inhibited with the amount of nitrogen reduction. The impact of different
water and fertilizer on soil pH and was similar to EC. The change of pH and EC is less on
the vertical direction, but greater on the horizontal direction. Increasing fertilizer can
increase the soil conductivity. In the the same amount of fertilizer, soil electrical
conductivity decreased with the increase of irrigation. The soil temperature have a
significant positive correlation with air temperature under different soil water and fertilizer
treatment in different soil depths,and there had a significant negative correlation between
soil moisture and soil temperature. With the increase in soil depth, the lag of soil
temperature became larger.
(3)Different water and fertilizer treatments had significant effects on tomato yield.
Tomato production increased with the increase of water amount, but fruit quality and water
use efficiency decreased. Tomato yield increased with the increase of fertilizer amount.
Tomato fruit quality had significant positive correlation with drought. Deficit irrigation
improved fruit quality. However, excessive irrigation decreased the Vc content of fruit. In
the same fertilizer conditions, the Vc content in tomato fruit increased with reduction of
irrigation amount; In the same water levels, the content of soluble sugars, organic acids
decreased.with the increase in the amount of fertilizer.
(4)Under water deficit, SOD, POD, CAT and APX activity rised in tomato.The  CAT activity and SOD activity was higher in deficit irrigation, while the POD and APX
activity was higher in moderate deficit irrigation. Moderate amount of nitrogen fertilizer
can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Fertilizer levels had not
significantly affect on POD, APX activity in the leaves, but had significantly affect on
SOD, CAT activity;Fertilizer levels had significantly effect on SOD, POD, CAT, APX
activity in fruits. The APX in fruit maintained a high level, to protect the fruit against
oxidative damage, while the SOD, POD, CAT activity was lower. Fruit quality has a
significant positive correlation with antioxidant enzyme activity. Deficit irrigation
improved fruit quality, but also increased the concentration of free oxygen.
Therefore, different fertilizer and irrigation had significant effects on fruit quality,
antioxidant systems and the soil environment of tomato in the greenhouse. Under high
irrigation, the lag effect of soil temperaturet increased with the increase amount of fertilizer.
Under deficit irrigation, the lag effect of soil temperature decreased the increase amount of
fertilizer. The changes of pH and EC were small in the vertical direction while large in the
horizontal direction. Under drought stress conditions fruit plants resist drought stress by
decreasing the content of fruit moisture, increasing soluble sugars, organic acids, soluble
proteins and other macromolecules to increase the permeability, and enhancing antioxidant
enzyme activity. Tomato fruit increasing the non-enzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant
enzymes activity together to protect tomato from drought stress. Therefore, from the point
of increasing in tomato yield and quality, reducing the free oxygen ion concentration,
improving water use efficiency view, the treatment 75±5% of soil holding capacity and
600Kg·hm-2 N+420 Kg·hm-2 P2O5+718 Kg·hm-2 K2O is the optimal combination.
Key Words: Greenhouse tomato;Irrigation and fertilization level; Soil temperature; Fruit
quality; Antioxidant enzymes

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8930
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
林兴军. 不同水肥对日光温室番茄品质和抗氧化系统 及土壤环境的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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