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秦巴山区弃渣场植被恢复过程中土壤-植被响应研究
屈晓婉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高照良
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword土壤化学性质 土壤酶活性 植被恢复 土壤种子库 弃渣场 高速公路
Abstract

高速公路是国家的基础设施。然而在修建高速公路同时,由于高填深挖,产生大量
的弃渣场,土质松散堆积,极易产生水土流失。弃渣场植被恢复成为人为水土流失研究
的热点问题。本文采用野外调查和室内实验相结合的办法,应用空间代时间的方法,以
秦巴山区不同植被恢复年限(0、2、5、7、15a)的13 个弃渣场为研究对象,调查分析
13 个样地的土壤化学性质及酶活性、相应地上植被生长状况、土壤种子库种类及数量等
内容,揭示陕南秦巴山区弃渣场植被恢复过程中土壤性质与植被生长的响应规律,探讨
植被恢复过程中土壤种子库状况及对地表植被的相似性关系,为人为水土流失治理提供
科学依据。主要研究结论如下:
(1)植被恢复初期,渣场土壤有机质和全氮含量比较贫乏,随着植被恢复时间的
延长,其含量呈增加趋势,且其增加幅度随着恢复年限的增加而逐渐减小。不同恢复年
限的渣场0-5cm 土层速效磷和速效钾含量差异极显著(P<0.01),硝态氮含量差异显著
(P<0.05),5-10cm 土层硝态氮、铵态氮和速效钾含量差异极显著。磷酸酶活性和过氧
化氢酶活性在植被恢复过程中变化趋势不明显,脲酶活性随着植被恢复年限的不同呈加
趋势。
(2)无论恢复年限,渣场土壤有机质和全氮之间显示出极显著正相关关系
(P<0.01)。0-5cm 土层全氮含量与磷酸酶、脲酶活性呈极显著正相关关系,与速效钾含
量呈显著正相关关系,有机质含量与速效钾含量呈极显著正相关关系,与脲酶活性呈极
显著正相关关系,与过氧化氢酶活性呈显著正相关关系。
土壤酶活性与土壤养分含量相关性较明显(P<0.05),相关性大小表现为脲酶>磷酸
酶>过氧化氢酶。脲酶活性与土壤有机质和全氮含量呈极显著的正相关(P<0.01),说明
脲酶在土壤C、N 转化过程中作用很大。
(3)覆土措施可以改善渣场土壤环境状况,有利于植被恢复。覆土措施与不覆土
措施相比,土壤有机质和全氮含量差异较为明显,覆土措施的有机质和全氮含量是不覆
土措施的1.5 倍左右,速效养分含量对比不明显。覆土可以增加渣场有机质含量,但短
期内不能改善土壤酶活性, 约5 年后,覆土渣场的磷酸酶和脲酶活性会明显高于未覆土渣场。
(4)渣场恢复初期,自然植被生长状况较差,盖度低,多样性指数也比较低,以
一年生草本植物为主。人工植被生长较好。人工恢复植被渣场的土壤养分低于自然恢复
植被的渣场。随着恢复年限的增加,人工植被改良土壤的效果逐步显现出来,养分含量
提高较快,这是因为人工恢复植被会增加土壤的生物量。同时随着恢复年限的增加,多
年生植物逐步入侵,在群落中所占比例增加,多样性指数呈增加趋势。
(5)土壤种子库与地上植被具有一定程度的相似性,但随着渣场覆土和无覆土措
施的差异,和恢复年限,其相似性程度有显著不同。如覆土人工恢复2 年植被的渣场相
似性系数最大,达到0.45;无覆土自然恢复15 年渣场相似性程度较差,为0.05。
关键词:土壤化学性质;土壤酶活性;植被恢复;土壤种子库;弃渣场;高速公路

Other Abstract

Highway is a national fundamental infrastructure. The highway construction generates
large numbers of excavation and filling slope which result in loose deposit soil and aggravate
soil and water loss. The vegetation restoration in slag yards becomes a hot issue in the
research of man-made soil and water loss. In this paper, with the study approach of combining
field investigation and laboratory analysis, we chose 13 sampling spots in the slag yards of
Qinba Mountains with different vegetation restoration periods (0, 2, 5, 7, 15a) as our study
area, and analyzed the measured data using analysis idea of substituting ‘space’ for ‘time’. For
each sampling spot, we surveyed soil physical and chemical properties, including soil enzyme
activity, vegetation growth status, soil seed bank types and quantity etc. Meanwhile, we
clarified the soil and vegetation response pattern during vegetation restoration in the slag
yards of Qinba Mountain, and discussed the similarity correlation between soil seed bank
condition and ground vegetation so as to provide soil and water conservation management
with scientific reference. The results obtained were presented as follows:
(1) Soil organic matter and total nitrogen in slag yards are low in the early stage of
vegetation restoration. Both increase as recover age increases, and the increase magnitude
reduce gradually with the increase of recover age. For different recover ages in 0-5cm soil
layers of the slag yards, both soil available P and K content (P<0.01) show very significant
difference, and nitrate nitrogen had significant difference (P<0.05). For different recover ages
in 5-10cm soil layers, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrate nitrogen and available K content
have very significant difference. The activity of phosphatase and catalase do not changed
significantly in vegetation recover process, and phosphatase has a stable increasing trend with
the increase of vegetation recover age.
(2) Organic matter and total nitrogen content have very significant positive correlation
for all restoring ages (p<0.01). In 0-5cm soil layers, soil total nitrogen content has very
significant positive correlation with phosphatase and urease activity respectively, and has  significant positive correlation with available K content; organic matter has very significant
positive correlation with available K content and urease activity respectively, and organic
matter had significant positive correlation with catalase activity.
Soil enzyme activity and soil nutrient content have significant correlation (P<0.05). The
relativity closeness is in the order of urease>phosphatase>catalase. Urease activity has very
significant positive correlation with soil organic matter and total nitrogen content respectively.
It is shown that urease activity takes an important role in C and N conversion process.
(3) Cover process can improve soil conditions in slag yard, and is conductive to
vegetation recovery. In the comparison between the results based on cover-process and that
based on un-cover-process, both soil organic matter and total nitrogen content show obvious
difference (soil organic matter and total nitrogen content based on cover-process are about 1.5
time of those based on un-cover-process respectively), and available nutrient content shows
less difference. The cover-process can increase the organic matter in slag yards, but it can’t
improve the soil enzyme activity in the short time. After about 5 years, phosphatase and
urease activity in slag yards with cover-process are significantly higher than that with
un-cover-process.
(4) In early stage of recovery, vegetation growth status is relatively poor, coverage rate
and diversity index are also low, and the vegetation mainly composes of annual herb.
However, artificial vegetation has a good growth status. Soil nutrient based on artificial
vegetation restoration is less than that based on natural vegetation restoration. With the
increasing of recover age, the soil improvement based on artificial vegetation gradually shows
effect and soil nutrient content is improved faster, because artificial recovery can increase soil
biomass. At the same time, with the increase of recovery age, perennial plant species
gradually invades and increases their proportion in vegetation community. Thus, diversity
index increases as a result.
(5) Seed bank and ground vegetation have a certain degree of similarity. However, the
similarity shows different degrees for different restoration age and cover-process strategy (i.e.
cover-process and un-cover-process). Cover-process restoration provides slag yards with the
highest similarity coefficient (up to 0.45) after 2 years, while un-cover-process restoration
leads to relatively bad similarity coefficient (0.05) after 15 years.
Key Words:Soil chemical property; Soil enzyme activity; Vegetation recovery; Soil seed
bank; Slag yard; Highway

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8925
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
屈晓婉. 秦巴山区弃渣场植被恢复过程中土壤-植被响应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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