ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
梨枣树不同生育期对土壤水势的响应研究
韩立新
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor汪有科
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword土壤水势 茎直径 生育期 水分胁迫 梨枣 生理生长
Abstract

通过对国内外相关研究现状及存在问题进行分析和总结,在榆林市米脂县红枣节
水示范基地,以小区内4 年生梨枣为研究对象,监测不同的土壤水势处理条件下梨枣
树萌芽开花期、果实生长期和果实成熟期茎直径微变化、冠层结构、叶片生理和果实
品质等生理生长指标的变化。设置4 个土壤水势处理,即:T1: 土壤水势控制在-41~-51
kPa(80-75%田持)范围内;T2:土壤水势控制在-41~-84kPa(80-60%田持)范围内;
T3:土壤水势控制在-61~-135 kPa(70-55%田持)范围内;T4:前期不灌水处理和后
期的充分灌溉处理。初步得出以下结论:
(1)不同的土壤水势处理条件下,茎直径日最大值(MXTD)和茎直径日最大
收缩量(MDS)表现明显不同。生育期亦影响MXTD 和MDS。不同生育期茎直径日
变化均呈现“U”曲线,但表现出不同的特征,主要的影响因子不同。
(2)不同的土壤水势处理下,冠层结构指标(叶面积指数、林隙分数、透光率
和消光系数等)表现明显不同。果实生长期受轻度的水分胁迫均影响冠层结构指标,
而恢复灌溉均表现出一定的补偿效应。
(3)萌芽期适宜的土壤水势为-41~-72 kPa。花芽分化适宜的土壤水势范围为
-41~-132 kPa。梨枣萌芽期适当的水分亏缺胁迫不影响花芽分化,减弱了营养生长量,
优化营养生长与生殖生长的比例。在梨枣开花期适宜的土壤水势范围为-54~-78kPa;
土壤水势为-79~-114kPa 时座果率最高。开花期轻度的水分亏缺可显著地提高座果率。
(4)在果实缓慢生长期,茎秆直径生长缓慢;高水分处理可减弱茎秆直径生长
受作物光合产物的分配激烈竞争的影响。果实快速生长期,MXTD 和叶片相对含水
量能反映梨枣的水分状况。适当的控制土壤水势能显著的提高叶片的水分利用效率;
梨枣果实生长期的适宜的土壤水势范围为-41~-84 kPa。果实生长期前期的土壤水势
低至-461 kPa,复水后叶片叶绿素含量不能恢复正常水平,叶片的光合功能低。
(5)梨枣果实成熟期茎直径微变化对不同的土壤水势反应不敏感。不同的土壤
水势处理影响梨枣果实相对含水量、风味品质和营养品质。适当控制土壤水势能显著
地提高梨枣的可溶性固形物、总糖含量和维生素C 含量。土壤水势为-80 ~ -112 kPa时,梨枣的可溶性固形物和总糖含量最高;土壤水势为-68 ~ -83 kPa 范围是,维生素
C 含量最高。
总之,梨枣不同生育期对土壤水势的响应不同,适宜的土壤水势范围不同。开花
期和果实生长期是梨枣的关键需水期,萌芽开花期土壤水势低至-461 kPa,将影响到
叶片叶绿素含量。因此,应根据实际需要和梨枣各个生育期对土壤水分的需求控制土
壤水势。
关键词:土壤水势;茎直径;生育期;水分胁迫;梨枣;生理生长

Other Abstract

Based on analysis of research status and existent problems of relative studies in home
and abroad, this text took four years old pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) in jujube
water-saving demonstration located in Mizhi Yulin. It is to study the responses of trunk
daily fluctuations, canopy structure, physiological indexes and fruit quality to different soil
water potential in sprout and flowering period, fruit growth period and fruit ripening period
of pear-jujube trees. There are four treatments, namely T1 (-41~-84 kPa), T2 (-41~-84kPa),
T3 (-61~-135 kPa) and T4 (non-irrigation in sprout and flowering period and covering to
sufficient irrigation). The preliminary conclusions are as follows:
(1) Under different soil water potential, maximum daily trunk diameter (MXTD)
and maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) are significantly different. The values of MXTD and
MDS fluctuated by pear-jujube growth and development period in different soil water
potential. The curve of trunk daily fluctuation is similar to “U” type, with maximum in the
morning and minimum in the evening. In different pear-jujube growth and development
periods, the curves are different caused by different factors.
(2) Leaf area indexes, Cap fraction, extinction coefficient and diaphanous rate are
significant different in different soil water potential. The mild water stress influenced these
indexes, but they recovered sharply after covering water, which is called compensation.
(3) In shoot period the suitable soil water potential was in the range of -41~-72 kPa,
However, the suitable soil water potential for pear-jujube flower bud was in the range of
-41~-132 kPa. In shoot period, mild water stress did not affect flower bud, made vegetative
growth less and optimized the relationship of vegetative growth and reproductive growth.
And, in flowering period, the suitable soil water potential is in the range of -54~-78 kPa for
pear-jujube in flowering period. While the suitable soil water potential for setting fruit was
in the range of -79~-114 kPa, in which the fruit set percent was greatest. Therefore, in  flowering period, mild water stress could increase setting percentage.
(4) Firstly, in fruit low-growing stage maximum daily trunk diameter grew slowly.
And the high soil water potential may decrease the percentage of fruit abscission. Secondly,
MXTD and leaf relative water content can reflect the pear jujube water content in fruit
fast-growing stage. What’s more, in fruit fast-growing stage, high water content reduced
the percentage of fruit abscission and allowed to set fruit. The treatment after full irrigated
which soil water potential was -461 kPa in early experiment, the leaf photosynthetic
function and chlorophyll content was influenced. Finally, we discovered suitable
controlling soil water content could increase single fruit weight, with no effect of
production. We suggested the suitable soil water potential in fruit development period was
-41~-84 kPa.
(5) In fruit ripening period, the trunk daily fluctuation is insensitive to soil water
potential. Relative water content, taste and quality of pear-jujube fruit are different in
different soil water potential. Solid content, total sugar content and vitamin C content rise
by control irrigation properly. Solid content and total sugar content are the highest in T3
treatment, which soil water potential is in the range of -60~-112 kPa in fruit ripening
period. While in T2 treatment, which in the range of -68~-83 kPa, vitamin C content is the
highest.
In conclusion, responses of pear-jujube to different soil water potential are different in
different development periods. And the values of suitable soil water potential for different
periods are different, too. Flowering period and fruit development period are the critical
time of water requirement for pear-jujube. If the soil water potential is below -461 kPa, the
content of chlorophyll would be affected. Thus, soil water potential should be control by
need of pear-jujube in different growth and development period.
Key words: soil water potential, trunk diameter, growth and development period, water
stress, pear-jujube, physical growth

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8923
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩立新. 梨枣树不同生育期对土壤水势的响应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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