ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
窟野河流域河川基流演变特征及其驱动因素分析
雷泳南
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张晓萍
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword基流 演变特征 驱动因素 窟野河流域 水蚀风蚀交错区
Abstract

本研究以黄土高原水蚀风蚀交错区典型流域窟野河流域为研究对象,应用基流分
割方法估算流域河川基流量,分析基流量年内分配和年际变化趋势,探讨在气候变化
和人为影响下流域河川基流量演变的驱动因素。研究结果对合理进行流域生态环境建
设、水保措施布设、水资源评价等问题都具有实际指导和借鉴意义。本研究取得的主
要结论如下:
1)探讨滑动最小值法、HYSEP 法和数字滤波法3 类共8 种自动基流分割方法的
适用性,从分割后基流指数的稳定性,基流过程线的合理性及基流量验证的结果来看,
Chapman-Maxwell 法和Eckhardt 法估算的基流结果能客观地反映实际基流状况,适合
于流域基流分割。
2)多年平均尺度上,流域河川基流量为24.72 mm,占流域径流量38%,但各月
份分配不均匀,受初春温度回升冰雪融化和季节性降水的影响,分配曲线表现为明显
的“双峰型”,基流量峰值出现在3 月份和8 月份。季节中以夏季基流量最丰沛,其次
是秋季、春季,冬季最少。汛期(5-10 月)基流量是非汛期的1.4 倍。
3)近50 年来,流域7 个时段(全年;春季、夏季、秋季、冬季;汛期和非汛期)
的基流量均表现为极显著减少趋势。全年基流量的减少量为0.628 mm/a;四季中夏季
减少量最大为0.212 mm/a,冬季最小为0.050 mm/a;汛期基流量减少程度是非汛期的
1.6 倍,达到-0.367 mm/a。流域全年基流量在1980 和1996 年发生两次明显的突变。
与基准期相比,水土保持效应期和煤炭开发期的日基流量在5%, 50% 和 95%的频率
上都有较大程度地减少。
4)采用分形理论的分形维数和引入形状因子来描述流域不同径流组分过程线的
形态特征。结果表明,3 种径流组分日过程线多年平均分形维数值,地表径流最大,
总径流次之,基流最小;日过线多年平均形状因子值,总径流最大,地表径流次之,基流最小。相对于基流,地表径流峰值提前,峰型高瘦,过程线起伏变化最为剧烈;
总径流峰值与地表径流较为同步,峰型高瘦,过程线起伏变化较为剧烈;基流峰值滞
后,峰型矮胖,过程线起伏变化平缓。流域3 个时期的典型年不同径流组分日过程线
分形维数和形状因子值总体呈现减小趋势,说明不同径流组分日过程线总体起伏变化
的复杂性变小,日过程线局部主峰峰值在减小。
5)流域河川基流量减少是气候变化和人类活动共同作用的结果。气象因子中降
水量的变化一定程度上影响了流域河川基流量,而流域潜在蒸散发对河川基流量影响
不大。流域内大面积连片开采煤炭资源是流域河川基流量减少最为主要的因素,其次
是过量开发利用地下水,水利工程建设的作用也是不可忽视。流域内开展的水土保持
综合治理,对河川基流增加起到了正效应,但在各种因素的综合效应下,流域河川基
流量还是呈现显著下降趋势。
关键词:基流; 演变特征; 驱动因素; 窟野河流域; 水蚀风蚀交错区

Other Abstract

The variation of base flow is a comprehensive reflection of the change of regional
climate and human activities, and it is an important element to maintain sustainable
development of the ecosystem. In this study, the Kuye catchment, a tributary of the Yellow
River, with a drainage area of 8706 km2 on the Loess Plateau, was chosen to investigate the
change trends and evolution characteristics of base flow. Based on Chapman-Maxwell base
flow separation technique, the total runoff from Wenjiachuan hydrological station, which is
the maximum control station in the Kuye catchment, was separated into surface runoff and
base flow. The evolution of rivers base flow driving factors were analyzed from climate
change to human activities. It could be useful to understand and evaluate the function of
soil conservation measure that have been implemented, and guide the future construction
of ecological restoration in this catchment. The results of the analysis in the thesis are as
follows.
1. Eight kinds of base flow separation methods were used in the Kuye catchment. The
results showed that Chapman-Maxwell filtering method and Eckhardt filtering method
separated most objective and stable base flow, which can be used as optimal base flow
separation method in this study area.
2. It showed that the average annual base flow was 24.72 mm, accounted for 38% of
total runoff. For the temperature rising in early spring and monsoon rainfall, the
distribution pattern showed two peaks in March and August among months, which  occupied 13.94% and 20.20% of total average annual base flow, respectively. The base
flow in summer was rich and base flow in winter was least. The base flow in wet season
was 1.4 times than dry season.
3. In the past 50 years, a significant negative trend was detected in the annual base
flow in all 7 time periods. For total year period, the average change rate was 0.628 mm/a.
The change points significantly occurred in 1980 and 1996. Analysis of flow duration
curves showed that, compared to the contrast period, the relative changes of annual base
flow for 5%, 50% and 95% exceeding time were greatly reduced in the treat period and the
coal mining period.
4. It used fractal dimension of the fractal theory and shape factor to express the
morphological characteristics of different components of runoff daily process line. For
fractal dimensions of runoff daily process line, surface runoff was biggest with a value of
1.0986, total runoff was second with a value of 1.0927, and base flow was smallest with a
value of 1.0288. For shape factors of runoff daily process line, total runoff was biggest
with a value of 16.7964, surface runoff was second with a value of 14.8280, and base flow
was smallest with a value of 4.8907. It was obvious that the morphological characteristics
of runoff daily process lines were vary from each other. For surface runoff, it showed that
process line was most complex fluctuation change with an advance peak and high thin
peak type; For total runoff, it showed that process line was complex fluctuation change
with an advance peak and high thin peak type; For base flow, it showed that process line
was most gently fluctuation change with a lag peak and squat peak type. Compared to the
contrast period, the characteristics of the fluctuation complexity and local peak of the
runoff process line in the total runoff, surface runoff and base flow revealed smaller in the
treat period and the coal mining period.
5. The significant negative trend in base flow was a comprehensive effect of the
change of regional climate and human activities. It revealed that the change of precipitation
was a reason for negative trend of base flow, but potential evapotranspiration had little
impact base flow in the Kuye catchment. Analysis of the factors of human activities
showed that the main factor for base flow trend was that excessive exploitation of a large
area of coal resources, utilization of groundwater and building of hydraulic engineering. It
played a positive effect on base flow by soil conservation measures that increased rainfall  infiltration. However, the trend of base flow was a comprehensive effect of the change of
regional climate and human activities.
Key Words:Base flow, Trend, Driving factors, Kuye catchment, Water and wind erosion
crisscrosses area

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8922
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
雷泳南. 窟野河流域河川基流演变特征及其驱动因素分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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