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桂西北喀斯特山区碎石对土壤水分入渗过程的影响 的试验研究
党宏宇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor邵明安
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword喀斯特 土石混合介质隔层 碎石 土壤水分入渗 盘式入渗
Abstract

桂西北白云岩地区地表常有大量碎石(>2 mm)覆盖,土壤中也常含有大量
碎石或碎石隔层。碎石的出现不仅是土壤退化的标志,还会改变土壤的某些物理
和化学性质,进而影响土壤水分运动过程。因此,研究喀斯特地区碎石对土壤水
分入渗过程的影响有助于深入研究该区水循环机理,为喀斯特地区的植被恢复重
建及其水文生态响应研究提供论依据。
本文根据室内土柱模拟试验和利用盘式入渗仪野外原位测定入渗试验,对不
同碎石覆盖度、含量和粒径土壤以及含土石混合介质隔层土壤水分入渗情况进行
了研究,取得了以下主要结论:
1)当土石混合介质隔层(碎石质量含量为50%)位于上层(0-20 cm)时,
隔层较大粒径(20~40 mm)碎石对入渗有一定的抑制作用,土壤水分累积入渗
量最小;当土石隔层位于中层(10-30 cm)时,隔层较小粒径(5~20 mm)碎石
有利于土壤水分入渗,而较大粒径(20~40 mm)碎石会抑制土壤水分入渗;当
土石隔层位于下层(20-40 cm)时,其对土壤水分入渗的影响较小。
2)当隔层碎石粒径为5~20 mm 时,0~120 min 内,土石隔层位于中层(10-30
cm)时的累积入渗量最大,而土石隔层位于上层(0-20 cm)时的累积入渗量反
而最小;但当隔层碎石粒径为20~40 mm 时,土石隔层位于下层(20-40 cm)时
的累积入渗量最大。
3)随着土石混合介质隔层(隔层位于10-30 cm、碎石粒径为20~40 mm、
质量含量为50%)厚度(0、10、20、30、40 cm)的增加,累积入渗量呈现先减
小再增加的趋势,在隔层厚度为20 cm 时达到最低;随着隔层碎石(隔层位于
10-30cm、碎石粒径为20~40 mm)质量含量(0、10%、20%、30%、40%、50%)
的增加,累积入渗量表现出“减小-增加-减小”的过程。
4)当土石混合介质碎石粒径为5~20 mm 时,0~140 min 内,随着碎石质量
含量(0、10%、20%、30%、40%、50%)的增加累积入渗量先减小后增加,在
碎石质量含量为30%时达到最小;当土石混合介质碎石粒径为20~40 mm 时,随着碎石质量含量的增加,累积入渗量表现出“减小-增加-减小”的过程,其中
碎石质量含量为50%时的累积入渗量最小。
5)随着碎石覆盖率(0、18%、32.2%、53.7%)的增加,累积入渗量呈现增
大的趋势;相应碎石覆盖率下碎石完全嵌入土壤(0-5 cm)且其质量含量大于5%
时,碎石的存在有利于土壤水分入渗过程。碎石覆盖表层时的累积入渗量大于均
质土壤和碎石完全嵌入土壤表层的情况。
6)撂荒地(含碎石)、玉米地(无碎石)表层土壤的累积入渗量和吸渗率随
入渗时间变化的曲线存在一个交点,入渗开始时,撂荒地的累积入渗量和吸渗率
大于玉米地;产生交点后则相反,撂荒地的小于玉米地。但当负压为-5 cm 时,
两者的累积入渗量曲线差异不显著。撂荒地表层土壤的入渗速率和近饱和导水率
均小于玉米地。
7)随着时间的变化,单位入渗历时,玉米地表层土壤的累积入渗量、入渗
速率、吸渗率和近饱和导水率均大于灌丛,但当负压为-1 cm 时,两者的吸渗率
曲线存在一个交点,产生交点后玉米地的吸渗率大于灌丛。
关键词:喀斯特;土石混合介质隔层;碎石;土壤水分入渗;盘式入渗

Other Abstract

Rock fragment (diameters>2 mm) are usually covered on surface soil of dolomite
areas of Northwest Guangxi, China; and its soil also contains large amounts of gravel
and Laminated rock fragments (LRF). The present of rock fragment indicates soil
degradation, and changes soil physical and chemical properties as well. Consequently,
process of soil water movement is modified. Therefore, to study the effect of rock
fragment on soil infiltration processes of karst areas is very important for study on
water cycle mechanisms and vegetation rehabilitation, and hydrological response.
In this study, water infiltration process of different gravel coverage, rock fragment
contents, sizes and laminated rock fragments are studied through columns of disturbed
soil samples. And we also use disc permeameter diagram to test the process of soil
infiltration. The main results are as following:
1)When LRF (gravimetric soil-stone content: 50% ) was located in the upper
position (0-20 cm) with a bigger size (20~40 mm), it could suppress the soil
infiltration processes and its cumulative infiltration capacity is the smallest. When
LRF was located in the middle position(0-20 cm )with a smaller size (5~20 mm), it
could be benefit for the soil infiltration processed, but when LRF was located in the
middle position (0-20 cm ) with a bigger size (20~40 mm), it could suppress the soil
infiltration processes. When LRF was located in the lower position, it had little effect
on soil infiltration processes.
2)The cumulative infiltration capacity was the biggest when LRF was located in
the middle position (10-30 cm) with the size of 5-20 mm during 0 to 120 minutes;
And the cumulative infiltration capacity was the smallest when LRF was located in
the upper position (0-20 cm) with the size of 5-20 mm during 0 to 120 minutes.
However, when it was located in the lower position (20-40 cm), the cumulative
infiltration capacity reached the biggest with the size of 20-40 mm.  3)The cumulative infiltration capacity showed a trend from decrease to increase
when the thickness of LRF (LRF was located in 10-30 cm and with a size of 20~40
mm, and gravimetric soil-stone content: 50% ) was increase from 0 to 40 cm; The
cumulative infiltration capacity was the smallest with a thickness of 20 cm of LDF.
The results showed a trend of “decrease- increase- decrease” for the cumulative
infiltration capacity when the gravimetric soil-stone content of LRF increased from 0
to 50%.
4) When the size of rock fragment is 5~20 mm, the cumulative infiltration
capacity showed a trend from decrease to increase with increasing of the gravimetric
soil-stone content from 0 to 50% during 0 to 140 minutes; The cumulative infiltration
capacity was the smallest with a gravimetric soil-stone content of 30%. When the size
of rock fragment is 20~40 mm, the cumulative infiltration capacity showed a trend of
“decrease- increase- decrease” with the increasing of the gravimetric soil-stone from 0
to 50%; The cumulative infiltration capacity was the smallest with a gravimetric
soil-stone content of 50%.
5)The cumulative infiltration capacity had a trend of increasing when the rock
fragment coverage (0,18%,32.2%,53.7%) increased. When the rock fragment was
completely embedded in the soil (0-5 cm) and the gravimetric soil-stone was greater
than 5%, the rock fragment was benefit for soil infiltration processes. When the rock
fragment was covered on soil surface, its cumulative infiltration capacity was bigger
than no-stone soil and rock fragment which was completely embedded in the surface
soil.
6) There was a poin of intersection for the cumulative infiltration and sorptivety
curve of abandoned land (included rock fragments) and coin’s (no-stone) surface soil.
When infiltration began, the cumulative infiltration and sorptivety of abandoned land
were bigger than coin field’s. This situation was opposite after the produing of the
point. The cumulative infiltration and sorptivety of abandoned land were shorter than
coin field’s. But when the negative pressure was -5 cm, the cumulative infiltration of
abandoned land and coin surface soil was no significant. The infiltration rate and
approximate hydraulic conductivity of abandoned land were both shorter than the coin
field’s.
7 ) The infiltration cumulative and infiltration rate, and sorptivety, and
approximate hydraulic conductivity of the coin field’ surface soil were both bigger
than the brush land. But when the the negative pressure was -1 cm, the two had a  point of intersection, the sorptivety of the coin field was bigger than the brush land’s.
Key Words:Karst;Laminated rock fragments;rock fragments;Infiltration;Tension
disc permeanmeter

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8920
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
党宏宇. 桂西北喀斯特山区碎石对土壤水分入渗过程的影响 的试验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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