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干扰对黄土区典型草原植被和土壤的影响研究
陈芙蓉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor程积民
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土区典型草原 干扰方式 植被群落特征 土壤理化性质 土壤有机碳
Abstract

在黄土区典型草原云雾山草原自然保护区,结合野外调查、野外定位监测试
验和室内土壤分析实验等方法,选取土壤类型相同,地形地貌一致,并具有相同
水热条件的放牧地、封育地、火烧地和施肥地为研究对象,研究黄土区典型草原
在不同干扰方式((封育+施肥(EF)、封育+火烧(EB)、封育(E)和放牧(G))
下植被和土壤的特征变化,结果表明:
1)黄土区典型草原放牧地由于连续多年放牧利用,草地演替为以扁穗冰草+
星毛委陵菜+铁杆蒿为优势物种的群落,封育地由于多年围封恢复利用,草地演
替为大针茅+硬质早熟禾+花苜蓿的群落,多年封育地经施肥后,草地演替为以
白颖苔草+本氏针茅+大针茅为优势物种的群落,多年封育地经火烧后,草地演
替为以铁杆蒿+本氏针茅+大针茅为优势物种的群落。
2)黄土区典型草原不同干扰方式下植被盖度、高度和地上生物量的大小顺
序依次为:封育+施肥>封育+火烧>封育>放牧地;群落密度的大小顺序为:
封育>封育+施肥>封育+火烧>放牧地;不同干扰方式下典型草原群落丰富度
指数(R 和Ma)的大小顺序为放牧>封育+施肥>封育+火烧>封育,群落物种
多样性指数(H和D)的排列顺序为放牧>封育>封育+火烧>封育+施肥,优势
度指数与多样性指数相反,群落均匀度指数(Jsw 和Ea)的排列顺序为封育>放
牧>封育+火烧>封育+施肥。
3)不同干扰方式下土壤物理性质的测定结果为:在0~50 cm土层,放牧地
的土壤容重随土层深度的增加而减少,其他样地的土壤容重随土层深度的增加而
增加,施肥+封育地容重最小。在0~50 cm土层,4种干扰方式的土壤含水量随土
层深度的增加而增加,依次为:封育+火烧>封育+施肥>封育>放牧;不同干
扰方式下土壤养分的测定结果为:在0~30 cm土层,4种干扰方式土壤养分(有
机质、全氮、全磷和速效钾)含量为:封育+施肥>封育+火烧>封育>放牧;
且放牧会导致0~10 cm所有养分含量的显著降低(P<0.01)。4)不同干扰方式下的土壤有机碳含量,在0~40 cm 土层,封育+施肥>封
育+火烧>封育>放牧,不同干扰对土壤有机碳的影响主要表现在0~20 cm 土
壤表层。在0~50 cm 土层,4 种干扰类型土壤有机碳密度大小依次为:封育+施
肥>封育+火烧>封育>放牧,分别为14.51 kg·m-2、13.86 kg·m-2、12.27 kg·m-2
和11.85 kg·m-2。放牧会导致土壤碳密度显著下降,而施肥+封育可以提高土壤碳
密度。
5)不同干扰样地群落生产力与Shanner-Winener 和Simpson 多样性指数间呈
负相关关系,支持光竞争与根竞争学说。地上生物量、土壤有机碳和土壤含水量
三者之间有显著的正相关关系。土壤有机质与全氮、全磷和速效钾呈显著正相关。
6)采用灰色关联分析得出不同干扰方式样地的植被与土壤状况优劣顺序为:
封育+施肥(0.9075)>封育+火烧(0.8167)>封育(0.6305)>放牧(0.5598)。
关键词:黄土区典型草原;干扰方式;植被群落特征;土壤理化性质;土壤有机碳

Other Abstract

Based on the field investigation and monitoring, the influences of different
disturbances on the above-ground vegetation characteristic and the below-ground soil
properties were studied in the typical steppe of Loess region. We divided different
plots of treatments into four types: enclosure (E), enclosure plus fertilization (EF),
enclosure plus burning (EB) and grazing (G), which has the same soil type,
topography and hydrothermal conditions. Our results showed that:
1) The dominant vegetation community type of grazing plots is
Agropyron cristatum + Potentilla acaulis +Artemisia sacrorum due to long-term
grazing. The dominant vegetation community type of exclusion of grazing plots is
Stipa grandis + Poa sphondylodes + Medicago ruthenica due to fencing utilization.
The dominant vegetation community type of fertilization plots is Carex duriuscula +
Stipa bungeana + Stipa grandis. The dominant vegetation community type of burning
plots is Artemisia sacrorum + Stipa bungeana + Stipa grandis.
2) The total plant coverage, height and above-ground biomass of different
disturbance manners is that EF>EB>E>G, and the community density of different
disturbance manners is that E>EF>EB>G. Community richness index (R and Ma)
showed a certain tendency within these four treatments: G>EF>EB>E, and
community evenness index (Jsw and Ea) was in an order of E>G>EB>EF. Meanwhile,
the order of diversity index (H and D) was as follows: G>E>EB>EF, while
dominance index showed an opposite tendency.
3) The soil physical properties in the four different disturbances were as follows:
In the 0~50 cm soil layer, the soil bulk density increased with soil depth in
enclosure(E), enclosure-fertilization(EF) and enclosure-burning(EB) grassland, while
decreased in grazing(G) grassland. In the 0~20 cm soil layer, soil bulk density of G
grassland was significantly higher than the other three types while EF was the lowest.
In the 0~50 cm soil layer, the soil water content increased with soil depth in the four
types of disturbances and tended to be in the order of EB>EF>E>G. In the 0~40 cm  soil layer, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and available potassium all decreased
with soil depth, and total phosphorus decreased with soil depth, while these variables
of EB increased at first and then decreased in the other three types. In the 0~30 cm
soil layer, the order of soil nutrient content tended to be EF>EB>E>G. The nutrient
content of G in 0~10 cm soil layer was significantly lower than the other three types
of disturbances (P<0.01).
4) The organic carbon content and density decreased with soil depth, but the
decreased amount are different among the four disturbances. In the 0~50 cm soil layer,
the order of the soil organic carbon content was EF>EB>E>G. In the 0~50 cm layer,
the order of soil organic carbon density was EF>EB>E>G, while enclosure-fertilized
grassland reached the highest (14.51 kg·m-2), followed by enclosure-burning grassland
(13.86 kg·m-2), fencing grassland (12.27 kg·m-2) and grazing grassland (11.85 kg·m-2).
Grazing can decrease the soil organic carbon density, while fertilization and fencing
have positive effects on the soil organic carbon density.
5) There was a negative correlation relationship between community
productivity and Shanner-Winener index and Simpson index, which supported the
light and root competition hypothesis. Above-ground biomass was positively related
to vegetation coverage, height and soil water content. Soil organic carbon content was
significantly positive correlated with above-ground biomass and total nitrogen in the
0~50 cm soil layer, while it just showed positively relationship with soil water content
in 0~30 cm soil layer. Furthermore, the results showed that soil organic matter was
positively related (P<0.01) to total nitrogen, total phosphorus and available potassium
in all the four types of disturbances, and total nitrogen showed a positive relationship
with total phosphorus and available potassium.
6)Based on the grayness relationship analysis, our results indicated that:
EF(0.9075)>EB(0.8167)>E(0.6305)>G(0.5598).
Key Words: typical steppe of Loess region, disturbances, vegetation community
characteristic, soil physicochemical properties, soil organic carbon

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8919
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈芙蓉. 干扰对黄土区典型草原植被和土壤的影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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