ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
低分子量有机酸对石灰性土壤磷素组成与有效性的影响
杨绍琼
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor党廷辉
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword低分子量有机酸 石灰性土壤 磷素活化作用 有机磷组成 无机磷组成 磷素有效性
Abstract

提高磷肥利用效率和土壤中有效磷的含量是旱作农业和现代农业进一步发展的
关键问题。针对黄土高原石灰性土壤区磷素固定较严重的问题,本论文利用长武长期
试验站的不同肥力的黑垆土作为研究对象,利用化学浸提法和实验室培养法研究了不
同种类、不同浓度的有机酸对不同土壤肥力石灰性土壤磷素的活化作用,得出以下结
论:
对于低肥力和中肥力土壤,相同浓度下有机酸活化土壤磷的能力表现为草酸>柠
檬酸>苹果酸;对于高肥力土壤,相同浓度下有机酸活化土壤磷的能力为柠檬酸>草
酸>苹果酸。低浓度时有机酸对土壤磷的活化有抑制作用,在速效磷含量较低的低肥
力、中肥力土壤上抑制作用较为明显,而苹果酸的抑制作用最为显著。有机酸能显著
降低土壤浸提液pH 值,柠檬酸的降低作用最强。对同一种有机酸而言,土壤磷的活
化量随pH 的升高而降低。
施加有机酸后土壤速效磷含量发生显著变化,其中草酸处理下土壤速效磷含量显
著高于其他处理。柠檬酸和苹果酸处理对土壤速效磷含量具有抑制作用,活化量为负
值,随着培养时间的增加速效磷含量缓慢降低;土壤速效磷含量随着草酸浓度的升高
而升高,随着苹果酸、柠檬酸浓度的升高而降低。有机酸处理后,土壤活性、中活性、
中稳性有机磷升高,高稳性有机磷降低,说明有机酸能促进土壤有机磷由有效性低的
形态逐步向有效性高的形态转化,其中草酸的作用效果总体上较柠檬酸和苹果酸强。
有机酸对土壤无机磷形态有明显的影响。土壤经草酸、柠檬酸、苹果酸培养后,
土壤Ca2-P、Ca8-P 和O-P 含量都有不同程度的增加,而Al-P、Fe-P 和Ca10-P 的含量
有明显的下降,总的趋势是促进土壤中难以利用的无机磷形态向有效性较高的形态转
化,有机酸的这种促进作用的强弱顺序为草酸>柠檬酸>苹果酸。有机酸对不同肥力
的土壤活化磷的作用能力不同,一般来说,有机酸对低肥力土壤的活化率强于对中肥
力和高肥力土壤的作用,但是有机酸对中肥力和高肥力土壤的活化量却高于低肥力土
壤。

Other Abstract

Increasing fertilizer use efficiency and content of available phosphorus in soil are the
key issues of dry farming and modern agriculture. To solve the problem of soil phosphorus
accumulation and fixation in calcareous soil, extraction experiments and incubation
experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of low molecular weight (LMW)
organic acids on phosphorus fraction and availability in different fertile calcareous soils.
The main conclusions were drawn as follows:
The organic acids could significantly stimulate the mobilization of soil phosphorus in
all three soils tested. When in the same concentration, the three organic acids followed an
order of oxalic acid> citric acid> malic acid in the capability of activating soil phosphorus
in the low fertility and moderate fertility soil; in the high fertility soil, the three followed
the order of citric acid> oxalic acid> malic acid. Low concentration of organic acids (≤2
mmol/L) could significantly restrained soil phosphorus activity in low and moderate
fertility soil, especially for the malic acid. LMW organic acids could decline the pH of soil
extract significantly, and the citric acid showed the strongest declining capacity.
Meanwhile, for the same kind of organic acid, the extent of phosphorus activating
decreased with the increasing of soil pH.
The LMW organic acids could significantly stimulate the soil available phosphorus.
For calcareous soil, the ability of oxalic acid in mobilizing soil available phosphorus was
higher than that of malic or citric acid; citric and malic acid could significantly restrained
soil available phosphorus activity in calcareous soil. The content of soil available
phosphorus decreased with the lengthened of the incubation time. Moreover, with the
increase of oxalic acid concentration, or the decrease of citric and malic acid
concentrations, the content of soil available phosphorus increased. After disposed by LMW
organic acids, the contents of liable organic phosphorus (L-OP), moderate liable organic
phosphorus (ML-OP), and moderate stable organic phosphorus (MS-OP) increased, while
the content of high stable organic phosphorus (HS-OP) decreased in calcareous soil. As a  conclusion, LMW organic acids can improve the soil phosphorus availability by affecting
the organic phosphorus fractions.
The effect of organic acids on soil inorganic phosphorus fraction was obvious. After
treatment with oxalic, citric and malic acid, the content of Ca2-P, Ca8-P and O-P increased,
while the content of Al-P, Fe-P and Ca10-P decreased. The general tendency observed was
that organic acid application promoted the transformation of phosphates in the form of less
or unavailability to higher availability. These promoting ability was varying with the
varieties and properties of organic acids, among which oxalic acid>citric acid>malic acid.
Organic acids can improve soil phosphorus availability by affecting the inorganic
phosphorus fraction and mobilizing sparingly soluble phosphate. The ability of organic
acids transformation of inorganic phosphorus fraction was varying with the soil. In the
general, the application phosphorus fertilizer soils had lower activation rate, but had higher
activation content.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8918
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨绍琼. 低分子量有机酸对石灰性土壤磷素组成与有效性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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