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京津水源区生态输水型与传统型水土流失治理模式 水沙关系变化研究
赵婷
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor谢永生
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生态输水型小流域 传统型小流域 水土流失治理 水沙关系 京津水源区
Abstract

针对京津水源区传统水土流失治理指导思想和治理模式只注重治理区生态经济
效益,忽视减沙同时大量减水加剧上下游用水矛盾的问题,以承德市平泉县东北沟小
流域作为生态输水型小流域野外定位试验点,结合传统型小流域典型治理区坡面、沟
道措施调查,通过对京津水源区传统型水土流失治理模式下水沙关系进行分析,评价
其拦沙输水效应,重点提出建设生态输水型小流域需从坡面林草措施、坡面工程措施
和沟道工程措施三方面进行改进,主要研究结论有:
(1)传统坡面林草治理措施过分追求经济效益,大量营造用材林、经济林及薪
炭林,生物耗水量增加,径流减少。特别是在坡面灌草植被盖度已达到有效盖度时,
依然实施荒坡整地造林工程,减少了径流、诱发了水土流失。研究发现:天然草地具
有最佳的减蚀产水效益。中度、轻度退化天然草地封育措施下阴坡、阳坡植被覆盖率
年均可提高1.63%和1.08%。建设生态输水型小流域可在国家实施生态补偿大背景和
保障生态安全前提下,放弃一部分鱼鳞坑等整地造林带来的经济效益,大面积中度、
轻度退化的天然草地可采用封育措施,既可实现有效拦沙、恢复植被,又可增加坡面
径流,最大限度向下游输水。
(2)传统坡面工程措施大多采用多年平均径流深,作为(渔鳞坑、竹节沟、水
平阶等技术及其配置模式)坡面工程设计依据,这些措施措施拦沙、减流效应显著。
建设生态输水型小流域,实施坡面工程时传统鱼鳞坑整地造林和鱼鳞坑加竹节壕整地
造林措施应限制在局部水土流失严重区域,并应适度降低整地标准。建议鱼鳞坑大小
可以根据坡面泥沙侵蚀量设计及阴阳坡草被覆盖度恢复速率进行配置,规格大小以鱼
鳞坑恰好淤满时植被覆盖度达到有效覆盖度为标准。规格较小的鱼鳞坑在遇到大暴雨
时有可能被冲毁,建议采取竹枇加固外沿等措施下的小鱼鳞坑,可以增强拦沙渗水作
用。同时,小鱼鳞坑内蓄水量较少,不宜种植经济林和用材林等耗水性树种,应选择
抗旱能力强的刺槐和乡土灌草。
(3)传统型沟道工程措施存在大部分谷坊泥沙淤积较少,个别关键部位谷坊淤积较多;多形成小的塘坝体系造成径流大量无效蒸发;干砌石谷坊损毁多是在一次超
标准暴雨中损坏。传统型沟道治理工程一方面水资源没有高效利用,另一方面加大了
治理成本。建设生态输水型小流域,沟道谷坊建设应合理布设谷坊,注重选址和施工
质量,特别是谷坊布设,应以坡面治理和流失状况为设计依据。小流域一条沟道内可
不拘泥于建设一种类型的谷坊,应因地制宜,将来沙量与输水原则相结合,配置沟道
工程措施。东北沟小流域从沟头到沟口,依次布设木桩编篱谷坊、干砌石透水谷坊、
浆砌石透水型谷坊,层层拦蓄,在保证泥沙不出沟的原则上,增大流域产水量。
关键词:生态输水型小流域传统型小流域水土流失治理水沙关系京津水源区

Other Abstract

The traditional guiding ideology and treatment on soil erosion control pay attention to
ecological and economic benefits of the harnessing area,which will reduce the sediment
yield. However, the reduction of sediment could lead to the decrease of water, which will
aggravate the water contradiction between upstream and downstream in the water source
areas of Beijing and Tianjin. Environmental effects of traditional slope and channel
measures on water and sediment were studied by investigation and ecological
water-carrying treatment was studied by location experiment in Dongbei watershed
locating in Pingquan County, Chengde City. The problems about building ecological
water-carrying watershed should be improve from slope of forest and grass measures, slope
engineering measures and channel engineering measures. The main results were
summarized as follows:
(1) The traditional slope of forest and grass measures pay attention to economic benefits,
building lots of commercial forest, economic forest and firewood forest which increase
water consumption of living being and reduce runoff. Especially when the grass cover
degree is effective, bringing slope engineering measures into force may reduce runoff and
induce soil erosion. Results showed that natural meadow has best runoff-increase and
soil-reduce. For moderate and mild degraded grassland under the management of closing
hills , the vegetation coverage could improve by 2.84% and 1.97% in shady slope and
sunny slope per year. Large areas of moderate and mild degraded grassland under the
management of closing hills could not only reduce sediment yield ,recover vegetation,but
also increase runoff, if give up economic benefits of the harnessing area under the
backround of eco-compensate and eco-security.
(2) The traditional slope engineering measures were design by average runoff of many
years, traditional fish-scale pits measures had significant effects on sediment trapping and
reduction of water yield. Building eco-water transfer watershed, some traditional measures  VIII
like fish-scale pits should be limited in areas where occurred serious soil erosion,and their
preparation standard should be degraded. It suggests that the size of fish-scale pits could be
designed by sediment and the rate of grass recovering. Small fish-scale pits may be destroy
by downpour, suggesting that the outside of fish-scale pits can be reinforced by bamboo
which could not only reduce sediment, but also increase runoff. Some Hippophae
rhamnoides and native shrub grass should be plant in the small fish-scale pits, but not the
tree species of water consumption.
(3) The traditional channel engineering measures have problems of less sedimentation.
Masonry check dam usually form small reservoir causing large of runoff evaporation. Dry
masonry check dam often destroy under overproof rainstorm. The traditional channel
engineering measures have two defects, one the one hand, low-use water resource, on the
other hand, increase manage cost. Building eco-water transfer watershed, the dam should
be developed on rational location and improve construction quality, designing according to
the condition of manages and erosion. A small watershed can have several types of dam,
adjusting measures to conditions and combine in-sand quantity and water transfer. Building
wood for fence check dam, dry masonry check dam, masonry check dam successively
from gully head to gully toe, which ensure reducing sediment and increasing water yield.
KeyWords:Eco-water transfer watershed;traditional watershed;soil erosion control;
relation between runoff and sediment;water source areas of Beijing and Tianjin

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8917
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵婷. 京津水源区生态输水型与传统型水土流失治理模式 水沙关系变化研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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