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基于生态足迹的神木矿区可持续发展研究
王 艳
Subtype硕士
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生态足迹 可持续发展 能源足迹 生态赤字 生态补偿
Abstract

煤炭资源的开发对社会建设和经济发展起着重要作用,但是煤炭资源的开发
和利用也伴随着一系列的环境问题。煤炭对国民经济的重要性、煤炭的不可再生
性以及煤炭开发利用对环境的破坏性,引起学界和公众对煤炭工业和煤炭矿区的
健康可持续发展高度重视。神木作为神府东胜侏罗纪煤田的聚煤中心,凭借其天
然的资源优势,以煤炭资源为中心发展了矿业经济,成为我国第一产煤大县,近
年来在全国百强县中的名次逐年提升。因此本文以神木县为例,运用国际上较为
常用的定量衡量可持续发展的方法——生态足迹,对矿区的可持续发展进行研
究。
本文通过计算神木县2004-2009 年的生态足迹和生态承载力,分析了神木县
的可持续发展现状以及近几年来的变化;然后又对神木县2004-2009 年的能源足
迹进行了进一步分析,以期找到影响能源足迹的主要因素,为控制其生态足迹、
减小生态赤字提供科学参考;同时,以生态足迹和生态补偿理论为依托,对建议
不可再生资源补偿基金进行了探讨;最后依据研究结果,结合神木县当地的实际
情况,立足神木县的可持续发展,提出了几点建议。主要的研究结果如下:
(1)以总能源消费量计算,神木县2009 年生态足迹远远超过生态承载力,
生态赤字达20.075ha/cap,是生态承载力的14 倍。以非工业能源消费量计算,
神木县2009 年生态足迹与生态承载力基本持平,出现少量生态盈余0.091
ha/cap。神木县的生态赤字主要来源于工业能耗。
(2)神木县近年来出现了严重的生态赤字,从2004 年的2.092ha/cap(人均
生态承载力的1.5 倍)增加到2009 年的20.185 ha/cap(人均生态承载力的15.3
倍)。生态赤字的主要来源是能源足迹,神木县的化石能源地足迹占人均生态足
迹的比重从2004 年的73.68%增加到2009 年的93.81%。神木县经济的发展主要
依赖矿产资源,由于矿产(煤炭)资源的不可再生性,巨大的生态赤字以及高比重的能源足迹应该引起当地政府的高度重视。
(3)从神木县的能源足迹分析可以得出:能源足迹指标表明,神木县的经
济发展对能源的依赖程度和对能源的敏感程度在2006 年以后都有所改善;能源
足迹因素分析表明,社会经济系统中的能源利用效率在2006 年以后逐渐得到改
善,但是能源结构几乎不变。神木县生态压力的主要原因是GDP 的快速增加和经
济规模的不断扩大,从能源足迹因素的分析结果可以看出,能源强度效应和能源
结构效应的改善能够抵消经济发展效应。
(4)针对神木县人均生态足迹主要有能源生态足迹组成,采用灰色关联分
析,得到焦炭产量与能源生态足迹的关联度最大为0.919,运用多元逐步回归分
析,以能源生态足迹为被解释变量,主要工业产品产量为解释变量进行分析,得
到回归方程:y=3.348+3.24×10-6x(其中y:人均能源足迹,x:焦炭产量)。由此
可知焦炭产量是影响能源生态足迹的主要原因,又由于神木县人均生态足迹的主
要构成是人均能源生态足迹,因此可以得出神木县人均生态足迹的主要影响因素
是焦炭的产量。
关键词:生态足迹;可持续发展;能源足迹;生态赤字;生态补偿

Other Abstract

The development of the coal resource plays an important role in social
construction and economic development, but a series of environmental problems had
happened at the same time. The coal is important but non-renewable, so the
sustainable development of the coal mining area has been paid more attention.
Shenmu is the coal accumulated centre of the Shenfu Dongsheng Jurassic coalfield.
With its high quality coal, Shenmu has become a typical mining county and the
largest coal producer in China’s counties. In the paper, ecological footprint, which is a
commonly quantitative method to measure sustainable development in the world, was
used to research the sustainable development of the mining area, with Shenmu as an
example.
In the paper, we calculated the ecological footprint and biocapacity of the
Shenmu County from 2004 to 2009, and analyzed its sustainable development present
situation and the change of these years; Then the paper analysed energy footprint in
order to find the influence factors and control its ecological footprint; After that, the
paper explored the possibilities of building nonrenewable resources ecological
compensation fund using ecological footprint model and ecological compensation
theories; At last, based on the results of analysis, some measures for the sustainable
development of Shenmu County were suggested. The main results were summarized
as follows:
(1)The results showed: In 2009, the ecological footprint was 20.075ha per capita
(It is 14 times biocapacity)when the total energy consumption (energy consumption
coming from industrial and non-industrial production) was used to calculate the
ecological footprints, whereas the ecological surplus was 0.091 ha per capita when the
non-industrial energy consumption was used. The ecological deficit was mainly  derived from the industrial energy consumption, and that energy was provided by
Shenmu County but consumed outside of it. This means the ecological footprints of
Shenmu County were shifted from the outside.
(2) The results showed that the ecological deficit increased from 2.092ha/cap (It
is 1.5 times biocapacity) to 20.185 ha/cap (It is 15.3 times biocapacity), and the
proportion of energy footprint increased from 73.7% to 93.8%. Shenmu County is a
mining county. The huge ecological deficit and the high proportion of energy footprint
should be paid high attention by the local government.
(3) Energy footprint indexes showed that the dependence and sensitivity degree
of the economic development to energy became better after the year of 2006 in
Shenmu County. Energy footprint factor decomposition model indicated that energy
footprint was mainly affected by the effect of economic development, the intensity of
energy has offset a little of the ecological hazard due to economic development after
the year of 2006, and the structure of energy has barely changed during these years.
The ecological pressure of Shenmu County was mainly from the rapid growth of GDP
and the expanding size of the economy.
(4) Energy footprint is the main component of the per capita ecological footprint
of Shenmu. The correlation degree of coke production and the energy footprint is
0.919 by using Grey Correlation Degree. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis,
only the coke production was positive predictors of the pre capita energy footprint.
Regression equation is y=3.348+3.24×10-6x (y: the per capita energy footprint, x: the
coke production). The main influence of energy footprint is the coke production. The
main influence of the per capita ecological footprint is the per capita energy footprint.
So the main influence of the per capita ecological footprint is the coke production.
Key Words: ecological footprint; sustainable development; energy footprint;
ecological deficit; ecological compensation

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8916
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 艳. 基于生态足迹的神木矿区可持续发展研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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