ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土高原土壤无机碳密度分布、储量及 影响因素
张 瑞
Subtype硕士
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土高原 土壤无机碳 储量 密度分布 土地利用 地形
Abstract

黄土高原地处干旱与半干旱区域,土层深厚,含有丰富的碳酸钙,在全国碳
循环中有着重要贡献。本研究以整个黄土高原地区为研究对象,根据全国第二次
土壤普查资料,共收集了黄土高原地区的495 个土壤剖面,2136 个样品,估算
黄土高原无机碳储量和密度,分析了黄土高原地区土壤无机碳密度空间分布格
局;结合安塞县纸坊沟流域,采用网格法共采集0-200cm 土壤剖面142 个,共
1750 个样品,分析了不同地形(峁顶、坡地、沟底)、不同土地利用方式(林
地、草地、农地、灌木地)下对流域土壤无机碳分布的影响,并估算了流域土壤
无机碳、有机碳和总碳的储量。取得主要结果如下:
1、黄土高原地区0-20 cm、0-50 cm、0-100 cm 中,土壤无机碳密度分别为
3.31 、8.41 和17.04 kg m-2,无机碳储量分别为2.39 Pg、5.31 Pg 和10.20 Pg,其
中,0-20 cm、0-50 cm 土层的无机碳储量分别占总储量的23.46%和52.08%。黄
土高原地区土壤无机碳密度主要集中在1-35 kg C m-2 范围之间,平均为17.04 kg
m-2,高于全国平均水平(6.3 kg m-2),西北干旱少雨地区的土壤无机碳密度相
对较高,而低无机碳密度主要分布在南部较湿润地区。
2、不同土地利用方式下,土壤剖面无机碳密度除20-50 cm 土层为耕地﹥草
地﹥林地,其它土层均为草地﹥耕地﹥林地。0-20 cm 草地的碳密度与耕地、林
地的差异显著,而耕地与林地差异不显著。20-50 cm、50-100 cm 土层林地与耕
地、林地与草地的碳密度差异均显著,而耕地与草地的碳密度无显著性差异。
3、地形和土地利用方式对纸坊沟流域土壤无机碳含量空间和剖面分布有显
著的影响。不同地形部位无机碳含量存在明显的差异,表现为峁顶(15.32 g·kg-1)
﹥坡地(14.45 g·kg-1)﹥沟底(12.27 g·kg-1)。与坡地相比,沟底SIC 含量降低
15%,峁顶则提高6%。整个小流域表层土壤平均SIC 含量为14.47 g·kg-1,变异
系数为13.85%,属于中等变异。土壤无机碳在空间上的分布主要由水土流失和土壤水分不同引起的。在不同土地利用方式下,灌木地土壤无机碳极显著高于林
地、草地、农地,林地和草地极显著高于农地,而林地与草地土壤无机碳含量无
显著性差异,土壤无机碳含量呈现灌木地(14.98 g·kg-1)﹥草地(14.59 g·kg-1)
﹥林地(14.43 g·kg-1)﹥农地(13.49 g·kg-1)的分布规律。
4、在纸坊沟流域,不同土地利用下,0-20 cm、0-50 cm 土层,灌木地和农
地土壤无机碳密度均处于偏低区,林地和草地处于土壤无机碳密度相对偏高区;
0-100 cm、0-200 cm 土层,林地、灌木地土壤无机碳密度处于偏高区,农地和草
地处于无机碳密度偏低区。同时可以发现,随着土层的增加林地和灌木地土壤无
机碳密度所占比例逐渐上升,说明植被根系对土壤无机碳密度有一定的影响。
0-20 cm、0-50 cm、0-100 cm 和0-200 cm 土层土壤有机碳密度分别为1.20 kg m-2、
2.20 kg C m-2、3.49 kg m-2 和5.93 kg m-2,低于全国和黄土高原尺度土壤有机碳密
度;上述土层无机碳密度分别为3.42 kg m-2、9.02 kg m-2、18.02 kg m-2 和35.03 kg
m-2,高于全国平均水平。纸坊沟流域0-20 cm 土层无机碳储量为28.6×106 kg,
有机碳储量为9.70×106 kg C,总碳储量为38.3×106 kg C;0-50 cm 土层土壤无机
碳为74.6×106 kg C,土壤有机碳储量为17.9×106 kg C,分别占该层总碳储量的
80.6%和19.4%; 0-100 cm 土层无机碳和有机碳储量分别为28.5×106 kg C、
147.5×106 kg C,总碳储量为92.5×106 kg C;0-200 cm 土层无机碳和有机碳储量
分别为285.6×106 kg C、48.4×106 kg C,总碳储量为334×106 kg C,无机碳储量对
总碳储量的影响更大。此外,100-200 cm 土层深度土壤总碳储量占0-200 cm 土
壤深度碳储量的47.3%,深层土壤碳储量潜力巨大,不容忽视。
关键词:黄土高原;土壤无机碳;储量;密度分布;土地利用;地形

Other Abstract

Loess plateau is located at arid and semi-arid area and the soil layers is deep.
There is much calcium carbonate on loess plateau which has important contribution to
carbon cycle in China. In this study, based on the Second National Soil Survey and
Loess Plateau 1:500000 soil map, we collected 495 soil profiles and 2136 samples in
the loess plateau area. We estimated the soil inorganic carbon storage (SICS), density
(SICD) and analyzed the effects on land use at the depth of 0-20cm, 20-50cm,
50-100cm. The spatial distribution pattern of soil inorganic carbon density in the
Loess Plateau was analyzed. Combined with a typical watershed of Zhifanggou
watershed which in hilly region of loess Plateau, 142 soil profiles (0-200cm) and 1750
samples were collected which was used by grid method (200m×200m). Based on four
land uses (farmland, grassland, shrubland, woodland) and three topographies
(tableland, slopeland, gullyland), we analyzed the effects of topographies and land
uses on spatial distribution of soil inorganic carbon and estimated soil inorganic
carbon storage, soil organic carbon storage, soil total carbon storage in the watershed.
The results were as follows:
1. The 0-20 cm of depth soil inorganic carbon density was 3.31 kg m-2, 0-50 cm
of depth soil inorganic carbon density was 8.41 kg m-2 and 0-100 cm of depth soil
inorganic carbon density was 17.04 kg m-2 in the Loess plateau. Soil inorganic carbon
storage were 2.39 Pg, 5.31 Pg and 10.20 Pg for the depth ranges of 0-20 cm, 0-50 cm
and 0-100 cm of depth, respectively. Stocks for 0-20 cm and 0-50 cm of depth
accounted for 23.46% and 52.08% of total Soil inorganic carbon storage, respectively.
Soil inorganic carbon density mainly ranged from 1 to 35 kg m-2, with an average of
17.04 kg m-2. In terms of spatial distribution, the SICD on the northwestern of Loess
Plateau was high because it rained less, the calcium carbonate’s leaching is difficult  and the calcium carbonate will deposit in soil. On the contrary, inorganic carbon
density (SICD) of southeast soil was very low as it rained more and the calcium
carbonate is leaching easily.
2. Under different land use types, the SICD were farmland>grassland >woodland
in all soil layers, excepted that it was grassland> farmland> woodland in 20-50cm
layer. SICD of grassland in 0-20cm was significantly different from that of woodland
or farmland. However, the difference between farmland and woodland was not
significant. There were significant differences in SICD in 20-50 cm and 50-100 cm
layers between woodland and farmland, as well as between woodland and grassland,
while there was no significant difference between farmland and grassland.
3. It was important to accurately assess regional spatial distribution
characteristics and the influencing factors of soil inorganic carbon and to study effects
of land use and topographies on spatial distribution of soil inorganic carbon. The
terrain had a significant influence on the spatial distribution of soil inorganic carbon
on Zhifanggou small watershed, ranged as: table land (15.32 g·kg-1)>slope land
(14.45 g·kg-1)>gully land (12.27 g·kg-1). Compared with slope land, soil inorganic
carbon contents in the gully land decreased by 15% and table land increased by 6%.
The average soil inorganic carbon content of 0-200 cm was 14.47 g·kg-1 and the
variation coefficient was 13.85% in the whole watershed. The soil inorganic carbon
spatial distribution patterns were caused by loss of soil and water and different soil
moisture. Land use had profound impacts on the distribution of soil inorganic carbon.
Soil inorganic carbon in shrub land was significantly higher than those in wood land,
grassland and farmland. Woodland and grassland was significantly higher than those
in farmland, but there was no significant difference between wood land and grassland,
ranged as: shrub land (14.98 g·kg-1)>grassland (14.59 g·kg-1)>woodland (14.43
g·kg-1)>farmland (13.49 g·kg-1). Moreover, the soil inorganic carbon of leaching and
position process was influenced by human activities, and it changed the spatial
distribution of soil inorganic carbon content.
4. In different ways of land use, in the light of soil organic carbon density from
0-20cm, 0-50cm layers, woodland and farmland lied in an area with less soil organic
carbon. Shrub-land and grassland located in an area with relative high soil organic
carbon density. While, in 0-100cm layers, soil organic carbon density of shrub-land
were in the area with more SOC. Woodland-land, meadow and farmland were in the
area with less SOC. However, in 0-200cm layers, soil organic carbon density of  shrub-land, woodland and grassland were in high density area, and farmland were in
low density area. In 0-20 cm, 0-50 cm soil layer, SIC density of shrub-land, and
farmland were in a area with less SIC, and woodland and grass-land were in a area
with relative more SIC. In 0-100cm, 0-200cm of depth, SIC density of woodland,
shrub-land were in the area with more SIC, which of farmland and grassland were in
the area with less SIC. At the same time, we could found that SIC density proportion
gradually increase with the increase of the soil layer, which illustrate that vegetation
root influence SIC density to a certain extent. The soil organic carbon density of 0-20
cm, 0-50 cm, 0-100 cm and 0-200 cm was 1.20 kg m-2, 2.20 kg C m-2, 3.49 kg m-2 and
5.93 kg m-2, respectively, were more lower than the corresponding density of China
and Loess plateau. The soil organic carbon density of 0-20 cm, 0-50 cm, 0-100 cm
and 0-200 cm was 3.42 kg m-2, 9.02 kg m-2, 18.02 kg m-2 and 35.03 kg m-2,
respectively, were more higher than the corresponding density of China. Soil
inorganic carbon stocks and soil organic carbon stocks of Zhifanggou watershed in
0-20 cm of depth was respectively 28.6×106 kg C and 9.70×106 kg C. Total soil carbon
stocks was 38.3×106 kg C; soil inorganic carbon stocks and soil organic carbon stocks
in 0-50 cm of depth was 74.6×106 kg C and 17.9×106 kg C, which accounted for
80.6% and 19.4% of Total soil carbon stocks (92.5×106 kg C) respectively. Soil
inorganic carbon stocks and soil organic carbon stocks in 0-100 cm of depth was
respectively 28.5×106 kg C and 147.5×106 kg C, and Total soil carbon stocks was
92.5×106 kg C; Total soil carbon stocks 0-200 cm of depth was 334×106 kg which was
1.17 times higher than soil inorganic carbon stocks (285.6×106 kg C) and 6.9 times
higher than soil organic carbon stocks (48.4×106 kg C). Soil inorganic carbon stocks
had greater influence on Total soil carbon stocks. In addition, Total soil carbon stocks
in 100-200 cm of depth accounted for 47.3% of Total soil carbon stocks in 0-2m soil
ayer. Total soil carbon stocks in deep soil layer had great potential and was
indispensable.
Key Words:Loess plateau, soil inorganic carbon, stocks, density, spatial distribution,
land use, topography

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8911
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张 瑞. 黄土高原土壤无机碳密度分布、储量及 影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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