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陕北黄土高原退耕还林(草)工程综合效益评价研究 ——以榆林南部六县为例
成六三
Subtype博士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生态效益 社会效益 经济效益 耕地压力指数 退耕还林(草)工程 黄土 丘陵区
Abstract

退耕还林(草)工程是我国投资最大、涉及面最广、工序最复杂的生态建设工程之
一,对其生态、社会、经济效益和综合效益的分析与评价对后续退耕还林(草)工程政
策制定、区域土地资源可持续利用,以及社会经济可持续发展具有重要意义。本论文以
地处陕北黄土丘陵区的研究区为研究区域,通过收集森林资源清查数据和统计年鉴资
料,并结合野外参与式农户调查和退耕地土壤养分(全氮、全磷、全钾及有机质含量)
实地测定,采用耕地压力指数和定位理论模型等方法,对该区退耕还林(草)工程生态、
经济、社会效益及其综合效益进行了评价,并对后续政策进行了探讨,取得了以下主要
结论:
⒈ 在分析退耕还林(草)工程生态因子—植被、土壤和水文动态变化过程基础上,
采用生态经济方法估算出了研究区(绥德县、米脂县、佳县、吴堡县、清涧县和子洲县)
退耕还林(草)工程涵养水源、固土保肥、固碳制氧、保护生物多样性、净化空气和改
善局地小气候六大生态服务功能的总价值分别为72×108 元、83×108 元、80×108 元、
116×108 元、97×108 元、91×108 元。其中,固土保肥价值量最高(50%~92%),其次是
固碳制氧(7%~48%),涵养水源、净化空气、保护生物多样性和改善局部小气候总和价
值不到3%。
⒉ 对比分析了区域退耕还林(草)工程实施前后农业产业比重、农户收入结构、
农村剩余劳动力转移以及GDP 等经济指标的变化特征,表明退耕还林(草)工程实施对
区域产业结构调整、优化配置生产要素和地方经济发展有重要作用。运用通径分析和线
性回归相结合的方法,得出了1998-2008 年米脂县、绥德县、佳县、吴堡县、清涧县和
子洲县退耕还林(草)工程对其区域农业产业结构调整力度系数分别为50.5%、23%、4.2%、
47%、5%和36%;对其区域农村剩余劳动力的转移的能力分别为2.1 人/hm2、1.1 人/hm2、
1.1 人/hm2、2.2 人/hm2、0.3 人/hm2 和3.2 人/hm2。
⒊ 利用定位理论模型和耕地压力指数模型对区域退耕还林(草)工程引发的主要
社会效应进行了定量评价。1998-2008 年绥德县、米脂县、佳县、吴堡县、清涧县和子洲县退耕农户对退耕还林(草)工程的满意度分别为0.85、0.91、0.8、0.81、0.83、
0.82;另一方面,得出1998-2008 年绥德县、米脂县、佳县和子洲县实施退耕粮食补贴
对降低县域耕地压力所起的作用比较显著,吴堡县和清涧县不显著。
⒋ 采用频率分析和专家咨询相结合的研究方法,对退耕还林(草)工程的影响因
素进行了探讨,构建了由生态效益指标——涵养水源、固土保肥、固碳制氧,经济效益
指标——农业产业结构调整、GDP 与第一产业产值的比例、农村剩余劳动力转移,社会
效益指标——区域粮食安全和农户对工程满意度等指标构成的退耕还林(草)工程综合
效益评价指标体系。运用灰色关联度模型对研究区退耕还林(草)工程综合效益进行了
评价,其综合效益评价评分顺序:子洲县(73.5)﹥米脂县(73.3)﹥吴堡县(67.7)
﹥清涧县(62.5)﹥绥德县(59.1)﹥佳县(51.3)。结果表明综合效益得分高的,其
单项效益不一定高;综合效益得分低的,其单项效益不一定低。综合效益评价对协调生
态、经济和社会发展有重要意义。
⒌ 结合生态、经济、社会效益及其综合效益评价结果,分析了退耕还林(草)工
程实施的政策效率和建设速率。研究表明国家实施退耕还林(草)工程投入产出比例为
1:20 以上,工程政策取得了很高的效率,但粮食补贴折成现金兑换政策对低收入的退耕
农户有效性较低。1998—2008 年退耕还林(草)工程建设速率不同程度影响了区域粮食
生产。
综合以上研究结果,建议进一步加强退耕还林(草)工程的科学规划和实施,并加
大今后财政的扶持力度以巩固现有成果,特别是生态成果。
关键词:生态效益;社会效益;经济效益;耕地压力指数;退耕还林(草)工程;黄土
丘陵区

Other Abstract

The Grain for Green project is one of largest ecological constructions in China as its
large investment, wide aspects considered, and complicated processes, the evaluations of its
equinoctial, economical and social benefits of the project is of great importance for policy
construction, sustainable land resource, and economical and social development in the Loess
Plateau. The paper takes a case of study on the south Yulin city to illustrate comprehensively
such effects on the Grain for Green project in the loess plateau. Based on data of forest
resources Inventory and socio-economic statistical yearbook in combined with soil
analysis(TN,TP,TK and SOM) and interviewing questionnaire(120 samples) with face to
face , it is evaluated by pressure index on cropland and localization theory model. The paper
evaluated the ecological benefits, economic benefits, social benefits and comprehensive
effects for the Grain for Green Project, and some evaluable conclusions were obtained as
follows:
⒈ Based on analysis of the dynamic changes of forest-grass vegetation, soil surface and
hydrology characteristics for the Grain for Green Project, The paper evaluated the value of
service function of forest ecosystem by soil and water conservation, preservation of fertility,
carbon fixing oxygen replacement, biodiversity protection, dust purification and improvement
of local climate in Suide, Mizhi, Jiaxian, Wubu, Qingjian and Zizhou county, are 72×108
yuan,83×108 yuan 80×108 yuan,116×108 yuan,97×108 yuan,91×108 yuan, respectively. The
value of service function for the conservations of soil and fertility is the largest shares, carbon
sequestration and oxygen replacement is the second, but the sum of biodiversity protection,
and dust purification of in air and the improvement of local climate are less than 3%.
⒉ The paper analyzed contritely economic indicators of agriculture, value structure of  farmers’ incomes, transfer of surplus labor and GDP on or about implementing the Grain for
Green Project. Using the methods of path analysis and regression analysis, the contributions
of the Grain for Green Project affecting agricultural structure adjustment are
50.5%,23%,4.2%,47%,5% and 36% in Suide, Mizhi, Jiaxian, Wubu, Qingjian and Zizhou
county, respectively. The transfer of surplus laboring rural areas are 2.1 persons/hm2, 1.1
persons/hm2, 1.1 persons/hm2, 2.2 persons/hm2, 0.3 person/hm2 and 3.2persons/hm2,
respectively. The results indicate that the Grain for Green Project has been improved local
economical development by adjusting production structures in rural areas.
⒊ The quantitative evaluation was made for the social benefit of the Grain for Green
Project by using models of orientation theory and pressure index of cultivated land. The
farmers’ satisfactory degree to the project are 0.85, 0.91, 0.8, 0.81, 0.83and 0.82 in Suide,
Mizhi, Jiaxian, Wubu, Qingjian and Zizhou county, respectively. Subsidy alleviates the
pressure on food security that vary counties where population densities differ,Where pressure
index of cultivated land have been higher risks in Jia county and Wubu county, and been
lower levels in Mizhi, QingjianSuide and Zizhou counties.
⒋ Based on frequency analysis in conjunction to expert enquiry, the factors influencing
the Grain for Green Project were discussed in this paper, and a comprehensive evaluation
system by integrated the index of ecological effect such as soil conservation and carbon
sequestration, economical benefit such as agricultural industry structure adjustment, the
percentage of production value of primary industry as well as rural labor force transfer, and
social benefit such as regional food security and the farmers’ satisfaction for the Grain for
Green Project was constructed. Using Grey Correlation Degree Analysis method, the
comprehensive benefits from the Grain for Green Project was evaluated, and the sequence for
the six counties was as follows: Zizhou(73.5)﹥Mizhi(73.3)﹥Wubu(67.7)﹥Qingjian
(62.5)﹥Suide(59.1)﹥Jiaxian(51.3). The result indicates that integrated higher score
didn’t mean higher score for a single benefit, and vice versa. The evaluation based on
integrated benefits for the Grain for Green Project is of great importance for ecological
economical society sustainable developments.
⒌Combined with the evaluations of ecological, economic, social and their comprehensive
benefits from the project, this paper analyses the effectiveness of the policy and the  implementing dimensions of the Grain for Green Program. The research showed that the ratio
of input to output in the engineering was above 1:20, indicating high effectiveness of the
project. However, the policy that grain subsidy was converted to the cash was lower for
low-income farmers. The construction dimension of the Grain for Green Program affected
regional food production in different extents during the period of 1998 to 2008.
Based on the above research results, we suggested further improving the scientific
planning and implementation of Grain for Green Program, and strengthening the financial
support in future in order to consolidate the existing achievement, especially in ecological
achievement.
Keyword: Ecological benefit; Social benefit; Economic benefit; Pressure index of cultivated
land; The Grain for Green Project; The Loess Plateau;

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8907
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
成六三. 陕北黄土高原退耕还林(草)工程综合效益评价研究 ——以榆林南部六县为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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