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柳枝稷化感作用研究
税军峰
Subtype博士
2010-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword柳枝稷 化感潜势 生态型 染色体倍性 化感物质
Abstract

柳枝稷(Panicum virgatum L.)是原产于北美的多年生暖季型优良高产牧草。柳
枝稷对贫瘠的土地,洪涝和干旱都有很好的忍耐力,栽培品种对酸性土壤环境具
有很强的忍耐性;同时,柳枝稷又是非常优良的的生物能源植物,是开发生物乙
醇的优良原料。从上个世纪40 年代国外最早开始对柳枝稷进行研究以来,主要
围绕着形态学、生理生态、遗传学和作为生物质能源植物等方面开展研究。
自从Ichizen 等从1988 年开始进行黄土高原荒山绿化研究工作,从世界各地
引进20000 种植物种,其引种结果表明,只有柳枝稷能够适应黄土高原的气候条
件,并同时具有防止土壤侵蚀的作用。但是缺乏不同染色体倍性、生态类型柳枝
稷在黄土高原的适应性、与当地杂草的竞争性和化感作用的研究。化感作用
(Allelopathy)是指植物之间、植物和微生物之间通过向环境中释放化学物质来影
响周围植物生长发育的现象,包括促进和抑制作用。化感作用广泛存在于农林生
态系统中。
本研究采用生物学化感测定方法,结合生态分析、数理统计分析,研究了9
种不同染色体倍性、生态类型柳枝稷间的化感作用差异,揭示了柳枝稷在生长周
期内化感作用的变化规律,为柳枝稷的引种和人工草地建设提供了理论依据。
主要研究内容及结果如下:
1、不同品种柳枝稷间的化感作用差异
不同染色体倍性、生态类型的柳枝稷对受体植物多年生黑麦草和紫花苜蓿的
化感作用存在差异。通过对9 个不同品种的柳枝稷在苗期对受体的化感作用分
析,染色体倍性高的通常表现出强的化感作用,生态类型中高地的比低地类型的
化感作用强,染色体倍性决定化感作用,但生态类型也强烈影响化感作用,即环境条件能影响柳枝稷化感作用。通过聚类分析,将柳枝稷按化感作用强弱分为三
类:Dakota、Forestberg、Sunburst、Nebraska 28 和Pathfinder 为强化感作用类型;
Black Well 和Cave_in_Rock 为中等化感作用类型;Alamo 和Kanlow 为弱化感作
用类型。
2、柳枝稷在生长周期内化感作用的变化
柳枝稷不同部位浸提液对受体植物生长的影响存在差异,同一部位在不同
生长季节其化感强弱也不相同;随着生长季节的变化,柳枝稷茎叶和根部的化感
物质的分配也随之发生变化。对于黑麦草,柳枝稷的综合化感作用呈现出苗期>
成熟期>开花期的规律,对于苜蓿,则表现为开花期>苗期>成熟期。柳枝稷茎
叶在苗期的化感作用要比根的化感作用强,到开花期和成熟期后,根的化感作用
增强。
3、干旱胁迫下柳枝稷化感作用变化
干旱环境下,柳枝稷的化感作用增强。在水分充足地方生长的4 倍体低地类
型柳枝稷Alamo 和Kanlow,在杨凌水分充足地区其化感作用表现不强,但是在
半干旱地区的固原却对其他植物的生长表现出强烈的化感抑制作用,表明了在干
旱胁迫下其组织中的次生代谢产物(化感物质)的浓度增加。
4.、柳枝稷植株内不同化学物质的化感作用
对受体植物多年生黑麦草,4 类有机物的抑制作用大小比较为:生物碱类>
酚类>有机酸类>中性物质。对紫花苜蓿的化感作用而言,四种有机物之间差异
不大。不论哪种有机物,其对多年生黑麦草的化感作用均大于对紫花苜蓿,即柳
枝稷中化感物质对不同的受试植物其化感作用表现不同。不同的植物对相同的化
感物质的敏感度不尽相同,由此可知,在选择研究化感作用的受体植物时,应可
能地多选择几种,这样才能对植物的化感作用给出全面准确的评价。
关键词:柳枝稷,化感潜势,生态型,染色体倍性,化感物质

Other Abstract

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm season high yield forage
grass, which is originated from North American. It has a wide adaptability to barren
soil, flood and drought conditions. Some cultivar is also very well adapted to acidic
soil. In addition, switchgrass is recognized as the excellent bioenergy plant. And it is a
best material for development of bioethanol. During the 40’s of last century foreign
Countries had started to conducted research on morphology, ecophysiology, genetics
as well as bioenergy.
Professor Nobumasa Ichizen had conducted research on rehabilitation of the loess
plateau from 1988. He had introduced 20000 plant species from all over the world.
The results turns out that only switchgrass could be able to adopt to the loess plateau
climate conditions. In the meanwhile it also has the ability for protect soil erosion.
However, there is no research on different cultivars and different chromosome ploidy
switchgrass adaptability and its competition as well as allelopathy effect on the local
plant species in the loess plateau.
Allelopathy is refers to chemical interaction among plants including
microorganism by a donor plant release secondary compound into the environment,
which have simulative or inhibitive effect on surrounding plants (receptor plant)
growth and development. Allelopathic phenomenon is widely existed in agricultural
and forestry systems.
In this study the research on nine different chromosome ploidy and different
ecotypes switchgrass with different grow stage’s allelopathic effect on the local plant
species in the loess plateau were conducted by using bioassay and comprehensive
analysis.
Main contents and results were as follows:  1. Allelopathic differences among cultivars
The allelopathic effect of different cultivars and different chromosome ploidy
switchgrass on perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum ) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa
L.) were significantly different. Among 9 switchgrass cultivars the high ploidy
cultivar performances high allelopathic affects than that of lower ploidy cultivar
during the seedling stage to receptors plants. In addition, up land switchgrass cultivars
showed a high allelopathic affect than that the lower land cultivars. Ploidy is the main
factor to determine the affect, but ecotype also has effect on allelopathy.
Cluster analysis for allelopathic potential of switchgrass could divided the nine
cultivars into three groups: Dakota, Forestberg, Sunburst, Nebraska 28 and Pathfinder
belongs strong allelopathic group. Black Well and Cave_in_Rock belong to middle
allelopathic group and third group has weak allelopathic effect, which are Alamo and
Kanlow.
2. The changes of allelopathic effect during the growing seasons
The different tissues of switchgrass extracts have different allelopathic effect on
receptors plant growth and development. The same tissue in different growth period
has different affects on receptors growth. With the growth of the switchgrass in
different seasons, the distribution of allelopathic substances also changes. In case of
perennial ryegrass the comprehensive allelopathic index were as follows: emergence
>maturity>flowering. Switchgrass stem and leave extracts displayed a stronger
allelopathic affect than that of the root during the seedling stage. However, during
flowering and after maturity the root had shown a stronger allelopathic affect.
3. Allelopathic affect change by drought stress
Switchgrass allelopathic affect were enhanced by drought stress. Four ploidy
lower land cultivars Alamo and Kanlow expressed high allelopathic affect under the
drought conditions in Guyuan whereas under sufficiently water supply they displayed
weak allelopathic affect in Yangling. This indicatesd that secondary metabolites
(allelochemicals) concentrations in the organization of switchgrass increased under
drought stress.
4. The allelopathic effect of different allelochemicals
Deferent allelochemicals have indicated different allelopathic affect on alfalfa  and perennial ryegrass. For receiver plant perennial ryegrass, among isolated four
groups of the chemicals, the allelopathic affects are as follows: alkaloids>phenolics
>organic acids>neutral substances, whereas there was a little difference among
organic matters in allelopathic affects on alfalfa. To any kind of organic matter, its
allelopathic affect on perennial ryegrass was greater than on alfalfa, that is to say the
performance of allelochemical in switchgrass on different receptor plants is different.
Different receptor plant showed different sensitivity to same allelochemical, so we
should choose more receptor plants to study plant allelopathy comprehensively and
give more accurate evaluation.
Key words: Switchgrass, allelopathic potential, ecotype, chromosome ploidy,
allelochemicals

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8903
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
税军峰. 柳枝稷化感作用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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