ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土丘陵区流域生态恢复环境响应及其评价
王 兵
Subtype博士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword生态环境 水土保持 试验示范区 Dpsir-mdss 黄土高原 尺度
Abstract

生态恢复环境响应及其评价是当前生态恢复的热点问题,对于揭示生态恢复过
程及机理,评估生态保护与资源合理开发利用提供重要依据。本文基于DPSIR
(Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response)概念框架模型,结合生态系统服
务功能、生态承载力模型,构建中尺度下延安水土保持与生态环境建设试验示范区
生态环境响应指标体系。选取黄土丘陵区延安示范区不同生态恢复模:式农牧模式
(高桥)、设施农业模式(河庄坪)、农-苹果模式(山狼岔)、农-经济林果模式
(县南沟)、水资源高效利用模式(燕沟),构建了小流域尺度下不同治理模式生
态环境响应指标体系。借助DPSIR-mDSS(method of Decesion Support Syetem)综
合评价模型,以延安水土保持与生态环境建设试验示范区为中尺度实证研究对象,
将研究区域分南部森林区和北部森林草原过渡带,研究其1999~2009 年间生态环
境动态响应过程;以高桥、河庄坪、山狼岔、县南沟和燕沟为小流域尺度实证对象,
对其生态环境响应进行评估。论文主要研究结果如下:
(1)不同尺度下DPSIR 生态环境响应指标体系的建立。
对20 世纪90 年代以来国内学者提出的生态环境质量评价指标体系进行统计分
析(共计168 个指标),同时考虑研究内容密切相关的关键指标,以生态环境为重
点,兼顾社会和经济因素,确定了基于DPSIR 概念框架的中尺度生态环境响应指标
体系:人口、人均纯收入、退耕还林还草面积、≥10℃有效积温、年降雨量、耕地
压力指数、自然偏离度、侵蚀性降雨量、参考作物蒸散量、输沙模数、土壤质量、
植被盖度、第一性初级生产力、多样性指数、生态需水量、生态服务价值。同时在
中尺度指标体系的基础上进行删减,构建针对研究区域内5 个重点示范区的小流域
尺度评价指标体系:人均纯收入、人口密度、自然偏离度、耕地压力指数、土壤质
量、生态承载力、第一性初级生产力、生态服务功能。
(2)DPSIR-mDSS 生态响应综合评价模型建立。
依据评价过程的三个阶段:评价指标体系构建与基础数据收集阶段、评价处理
阶段(包括指标规范化处理,评价尺度选择与建立,分析矩阵的构建)、评价与校正阶段(包括环境、社会和经济综合结果和各分项结果排序,指标敏感性分析),
结合决策支持系统(mDSS),构建了DPSIR-mDSS 生态响应综合评价模型。
(3)中尺度生态恢复环境响应动态。
研究区域生态环境响应综合值在退耕还林初期较低,均小于0.5,2005年退耕还
林还草工程基本结束后,生态环境响应综合值明显增加,截止到2009年,森林草原过
渡带综合值较1999年增加了38%,森林区综合值较1999年增加了43%。总体而言,森
林区综合值高于森林草原过渡带,是其1.04到1.21倍。环境分项值和经济分项值也呈
现增加趋势,社会分项值呈减少趋势,截止到2009年,森林区和森林草原过渡带环境
分项值较1999年均增加了8%,经济分项值分别增加了7和12%,社会分项值减少了22
和29%。
(4)小流域尺度下不同治理模式生态环境响应。
综合值由大到小依次为农-经济林果模式>农-苹果模式>农牧模式>水资源高
效利用模式>设施农业模式,其中农-经济林果模式综合值是设施农业模式的1.37倍。
环境分项值由大到小依次是水资源高效利用模式>农-苹果模式>农牧模式>农-经
济林果模式>设施农业模式,其中水资源高效利用模式环境分项值是设施农业模式的
1.71倍;社会分项值由大到小依次为农牧模式>农-经济林果模式>农-苹果模式>水
资源高效利用模式>设施农业模式;其中农牧模式社会分项值是设施农业模式的3.75
倍;经济分项值由大到小依次为设施农业模式>农-经济林果模式>水资源高效利用
模式>农-苹果模式>农牧模式,其中设施农业模式经济分项值是农牧模式的2.09倍。
(5)生态环境响应中权重确定方法的比较及不同尺度下指标敏感性。
熵值权重法在评价指标较多时具有一定优势,对应于本文中尺度生态环境动态响
应评估,结果较PWC权重法更符合实际;PWC权重法在指标较少时具有优势,对应
于本文中小流域尺度下不同治理模式生态环境响应评估,较熵值权重法更符合实际。
小流域尺度下不同治理模式指标敏感性分析表明人均纯收入为最敏感指标,对生态环
境响应影响较大。中尺度下指标敏感性分析结果表明退耕还林还草为最敏感指标,其
它依次为人均纯收入,降雨量,自然偏离度,耕地压力和侵蚀性降雨量;敏感指标大
都为驱动力和压力因子。相对于驱动力和压力而言,生态环境质量变化具有一定的滞
后性,说明措施政策的出台以及人类活动(包括社会活动和经济活动)对生态环境的
影响,往往并不是立即能显现出来,而是需要经历一定的时期才能被生态环境所响应。
关键词:生态环境;水土保持;试验示范区;DPSIR-mDSS;黄土高原;尺度

Other Abstract

Environmental response and assessment of ecological restoration is a hot issue at
present, also,it provides a scientific basis for revealing process and mechanism of
ecological restoration, assessing ecology quality, as well as expoliting and utilizing
resources. Mesoscale index system of eco-environmental response in Yan'an
demonstration area of soil conservation and eco-environment construction was
established, based on conceptual framework model DPSIR and combined with models
about ecosystem services and ecological carrying capacity. Index system of
eco-environment response of different treatment patterns in small watershed scale was
constructed, after selecting following ecological restoration patterns of Yan’an
demonstration area in loess hilly region: agriculture mode compound farming and
grazing (Gaoqiao), high benefit installation agriculture mode (Hezhuangping),
agriculture-apple industrialization mode (Shanlangcha), mode compound agriculture and
economic forest and fruit (Xiannangou), mode of effective utilization of water resources
(Yangou). By means of comprehensive evaluation model DPSIR-mDSS, adopting Yan'an
demonstration area of soil conservation and eco-environment construction as mesoscale
research object, dividing study area into two part: southern forest area and northern
forest-steppe ecotone, dynamic response of ecological environment from 1999-2009 was
studied. Also, Gaoqiao, Hezhuangping, Shanlangcha, Xiannangou and Yangou were used
as empirical object of small watershed scale to assess response of ecological
environment.
Major findings are as follows:
(1) Establishing DPSIR index system of ecological environment under
different scales.
After statistically analyzing index system of ecological environment proposed by
researchers from 1990s (168 index in all), considering key index closely related with this  research, focusing on the ecological environment and taking into account the social and
economic factors, following mesoscale index system of eco-environment response based
on DPSIR conceptual framework were established: population, per capita net income,
area of “gain for green” porject, effective accumulated temperature higher than 10℃,
annual rainfall, pressure index on cropland, natural deviation, erosive rainfall, reference
crop evapotranspiration, sediment transport modulus, soil quality, vegetation coverage,
net primary productivity, diversity index, ecological water requirement, ecological
service value. After deleting mesoscale index system, following small watershed scale
index system of 5 key demonstration areas in study area were established: per capita net
income, population density, natural deviation, pressure index on cropland, soil quality,
ecological carrying capacity, net primary productivity, ecosystem services.
(2) Establishing eco-environment response comprehensive evaluation model
DPSIR-mDSS.
Combined with decision support system mDSS, eco-environment response
comprehensive evaluation model DPSIR-mDSS was established based on three stages of
evaluation process: phase of constructing index system and collecting basic data, design
phase (including normalization, selection and establishment of evaluation scale,
construction of analysis matrix); evaluating and calibrating phase (including sorting
comprehensive results of environment, society, economy and results of each subentry,
analyzing sensitivity of index).
(3) Dynamic response of mesoscale ecological restoration.
Comprehensive value of eco-environment response of study area is lower than 0.5
in early stage of “gain for green” project; after the project was basically completed in
2005, comprehensive value of eco-environment response increased significantly; up to
2009, comprehensive value of forest-steppe ecotone and forest area increased by 38%
and 43% respectively compared with 1999. Overall, comprehensive value of forest area
is 1.04-1.21 times higher than value of forest-steppe ecotone. Values of environmental
subentry and economical subentry increased, while value of social subentry decreased.
Up to 2009, value of environmental subentry of forest area and forest-steppe ecotone
increased by 8%, value of economical subentry increased by 7% and 12% respectively,
value of social subentry decreased by 22% and 29% respectively compared with 1999.  (4) Eco-environment response of different treatment patterns under small
watershed scale.
Descending order of comprehensive value is Xiannangou > Shanlangcha > Gaoqiao
> Yangou > Hezhuangping, comprehensive value of Xiannangou is 1.37 times higher
than Hezhuangping. Descending order of value of environmental subentry is Yangou >
Shanlangcha> Gaoqiao > Xiannangou > Hezhuangping, value of environmental subentry
of Yangou is 1.71 times higer than Hezhuangping; Descending order of value of social
subentry is Gaoqiao > Xiannangou > Shanlangcha > Yangou > Hezhuangping, value of
social subentry of Gaoqiao is 3.75 times higer than Hezhuangping; Descending order of
value of economical subentry is Hezhuangping > Xiannangou > Yangou > Shanlangcha >
Gaoqiao, value of economical subentry of Hezhuangping is 2.09 times higer than
Gaoqiao.
( 5 ) Comparison of methods for determining weight in response of
eco-environment and sensitivity of index under different scales.
Entropy weight method has certain advantages when there are relatively more index,
it is more realistic than PWC weight method corresponding to dynamic response
assessment of mesoscale ecological environment; on the other hand, PWC weight
method has advantages when there are relatively less index, it is more realistic than
entropy weight method corresponding to response assessment of ecological environment
of different treatment patterns under small watershed scale. Results of mesoscale index
sensitivity analysis showed that “gain for green”project is the most sensitive index,
others are per capita net income, rainfall,natural deviation, pressure on cropland, erosive
rainfall. Moreover, Sensitive index mostly are driving force and pressure factor.
Compared with driving force and pressure factor, changes of eco-environment quality
has a certain characteristics of hysteresis , which indicated that impacts of implement of
measures and human activity (including social activity and economical activity) on
ecological environment are not shown immediately, but need a certain period of time to
be responded by ecological environment.
Key Words:ecological environment; soil and water conservation; demonstration area;
DPSIR-mDSS; loess plateau; Scale

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8899
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 兵. 黄土丘陵区流域生态恢复环境响应及其评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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