ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
榆林黄土区梨枣树生理生长对土壤水分的响应研究
李晓彬
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword梨枣树 梨枣树 土壤水分 气象因子 生理生长 生产 水分亏缺 茎直径 土壤水分 气象因子 生理生长 生产 水分亏缺 茎直径 水分优化
Abstract

本文通过对国内外相关研究现状及存在问题进行分析和总结,在陕北红枣节水示
范基地,以小区内三年生梨枣为研究对象,监测不同土壤水势处理条件下土壤性质、
枣树茎直径微变化、冠层结构、叶片生理、光合生产等梨枣树生长生理指标的变化,
并结合气象要素分析梨枣树适宜的栽培气象环境,茎直径微变化的主成分气象影响因
子。通过分析土壤—植物—大气连续体各界面的指标数量关系与内在联系,最后综合
探讨陕北梨枣树栽培水分优化调控问题。设置四个土壤水势处理,即:T1:土壤水势
控制在-41~-51kPa 范围内;T2:土壤水势控制在-68~-84kPa 范围内;T3:土壤水势
控制在-96~-135kPa;T4:土壤水势控制在-311~果实萎蔫~-311kpa。初步得出以下
结论:
(1)陕北气象环境对于枣树栽培利弊共存。陕北太阳辐射值高,辐射时间长,
试验期间Rs 日均值为226.80wat/m2,长时间高辐射对梨枣后期果实着色、成熟度等
具有重要作用。陕北昼夜温差较大,试验期间日温差日均值为13.88℃,而较大的日
温差可以改善果实品质。试验区日平均降雨量1.71mm,日均参考作物腾散量6.77mm,
栽培环境相对干旱,降雨集中连续,从第160 天到第220 天(开花坐果期到果实膨大
前期)是饱和水汽压亏缺与温度较高时段。试验确定梨枣树果实膨大期与开花期为主
要亏水时期,需要进行合理的人为补灌,确保梨枣树健康的生长。
(2)茎直径日变化可以分为平衡型、亏缺型和增长型三种类型。平衡型茎直径
日生长量(DI)为正值,亏缺型DI 为负值,增长型没有明确的DI。茎直径日变化过
程与气温具有负向的,与空气相对湿度具有正向的相似变化趋势,茎直径日最大值
MXTD 一般出现在早上8 点左右,茎直径日最小值MNTD 一般出现在下午3 点左右。
(3)通过对气象因子关于茎直径日最大收缩量(MDS)的通径分析得出,Rs、
Tmd 是影响MDS 的主要决策变量。ET0 是MDS 的主要限制变量。分析认为大气蒸腾
强度与辐射是影响MDS 的主要因素,由于计算中误差项的直接通径系数与决策系数较高,表明除了气象因子外还有其他重要因素影响着MDS 的变化。
(4)枣树茎直径的日动态变化以及生育期内生长速度与土壤水分有密切的关系。
高水分处理枣树茎直径微变化(MXTD 与MNTD)比较稳定,数值要小于低水分处理
的,茎秆由快速生长进入缓慢生长的时间要比低水分处理的迟,生长速率转折点要滞
后于低水分处理的。因此,对枣树进行灌溉可以延长植株生长的周期。枣树茎直径的
生长变化能很好的被Slogistic1 曲线方程拟合。
(5)试验得出:叶面积指数与土壤水分处理成正相关,而冠层透光率和树高与
土壤水分处理成负相关。中等水分处理可以使枣树冠层透光率长期处在25%~35%适
宜范围内,水分处理对枣树叶片叶绿素相对含量、气孔导度、胞间CO2 浓度等特性
影响较大。土壤水分高,枣树叶片叶绿素相对含量低,气孔导度大,胞间CO2 浓度
高,气孔限制值低。在经过复水后,叶片叶绿素相对含量有降低的趋势,但不同程度
的水分胁迫复水后,叶绿素降低程度不同。适当灌溉可以提高枣树叶片净光合速率、
蒸腾速率,但会降低叶片水分利用效率。通过灌溉可以显著提高枣树的初期坐果率、
保果率、坐果枝条数和收获果实数,并同时增加枣树总枝条数、坐果枝平均坐果率和
坐果枝率,但不显著。适当灌水可以显著提高单果重与总产量,但水分过多,枣树生
长会受到水涝胁迫,单果重与总产量会有所降低。
( 6)梨枣树栽培适宜的灌溉土壤水势为-68~-84kpa,相对田间持水量的
60%~65%;适宜灌溉时期为开花坐果期与果实膨大期;梨枣树水分亏缺敏感性指标
为茎直径微变化(MDS、MXTD、MNTD)、气孔导度、净光合速率和蒸腾速率。
关键词:梨枣树;土壤水分;气象因子;生理生长;生产;水分亏缺;茎直径;
水分优化

Other Abstract

Based on the analysis for the present status and existing problems of relative research
in home and abroad, the soil properties, stem diameter micro-change, canopy structure, leaf
physiological, photosynthetic production and other growth and physiological indexes of
four years old pear jujube trees were invesstigated in this paper under four soil moisture
treatments, namely T1(-41~-51kPa), T2(-68~-84kPa), T3(-96~-135kPa) and T4(-311~
fruit wilting~-311kPa) in jujube water-saving demonstration base located on Loess
Plateau. Meanwhile meteorological environment for cultivation and principal
meteorological factors influencing stem diameter were studied. At last, water optimal
control theory of jujube cultivation were summarized by analyzing the quantitative
relations and inner link of indexes for each interface of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.
The preliminary conclusions are were as followed:
(1) The meteorological environment had advantages and disadvantages for Jujube
cultivation in Northern shaan xi, where solar radiation value was high and radiated time
was long and daily average Rs was 226.80wat/m2 during the experimental period. Long
time and high value of solar radiation played an important role on the fruit coloring and
maturity in the later period. Daily temperature difference(DTD) value is high during
experiment period and the daily average value was 13.88℃, which was helpful for
improving fruit quality. In study area, the average daily rainfall was 1.71mm, average daily
reference crop evapotranspiration was 6.77mm, cultivation environment was relatively dry,
rainfall time was continuous, and vapour pressure deficit value and temperature were high
from 160 days to 220 days. Fruit expanding period, leaf expansion and flowering period
were the main water deficit period, and reasonable irrigation was needed to ensure healthy
growth of jujube trees in this time.  (2)Daily stem diameter change could be divided into recovery type, deficit type and
special type. Daily diameter increase (DI) of recovery type was positive, and deficit type
was negative, while the special type has no clear DI. Dynamic change of stem diameter has
a negative similar trend with air temperature and a positive similar trend with air relative
humidity. MXTD usually appearred about 8 o'clock in the morning, and MNTD usually
appearred about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.
(3) Rs and Tmd were considered as the main decision variables influencing MDS, and
ET0 was the main limiting variables by analyzing the path between MDS and
meteorological factors. Transpiration intensity and radiation were thought as the main
factors influencing MDS. There were some other factors influencing MDS for the error
term value of direct path coefficients and decision-making coefficient were high.
(4) daily dynamic of jujube stem diameter and growth rate during the growing season
were closely related to soil moisture. The dynamic change of pear jujube stem
microvariation was stable in high water treatment plot, while the value was lower than the
that under low water treatment. The time of stem from the rapid growth to slow growth
was later and the turning point was also lagged behind compared with that under low water
treatment. So irrigation could extended the growth time. The stem was thick under low
water treatment. Growth Changes of stem diameter could be well fitted by Slogistic1 curve
equation.
(5) LAI was positively correlated with the soil moisture content, while light
transmittance of canopy and tree height were negative correlated with the soil moisture
content. Light transmittance of canopy under medium water treatment was in suitable
scope of 25% to 35% for a long time, which could make full use of the light energy and not
cause orchard canopy closure. Water treatment had an important influence on the
Chlorophyll relative content, stomatal limitation, and Ci. Chlorophyll relative content.
Stomatal limitation value of pear Jujube leaf was low, while the value of cond and Ci was
high in high water treatment plot. Chlorophyll relative content was down when rehydration,
but the decreased degree was different to different water stress degree. Net photosynthetic
rate and transpiration rate increased with the soil moisture content, but water use efficiency
dropped. Irrigation can raised The value of fruit setting rate, fruit retention rate, fruit
setting branches and fruit number could be increased significantly by irrigation, meanwhile
the total branches number, average fruit number of fruit setting branches and rate of fruit
setting branches were also enhanced, but the effect were not remarkable. Proper irrigation
could significantly improve fruit weight and total production, but if the water was too  much, jujube tree’s growth would be affected by flooding stress, and fruit weight and total
production would be reduced.
(6)Appropriate soil water potential irrigation range of Jujube was from - 68 to -
84kpa, relative to the field capacity from 60% to 65%; Suitable periods for irrigation were
flowering and fruit bearing periods and fruit expanding period; Preferred water deficit
sensitivity indexes were stem diameter micro-changes (MDS, MXTD, MNTD), and
stomatal conductance, and net photosynthesis rate, and transpiration rate.
Key words: pear jujube tree; soil moisture; meteorological factor; Physical growth;
production; water deficit; stem diameter; water optimization

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8893
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李晓彬. 榆林黄土区梨枣树生理生长对土壤水分的响应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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