ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
新型有机无机复混肥对冬小麦水肥利用及 农田固碳效应的影响
周立峰
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword有机无机复混肥 土壤养分 水分利用效率 Nep
Abstract

化肥、农药、种子、除草剂、农机等的应用消除了很多作物生长障碍因子,使农
作物产量大幅度提高,但土壤地力、土壤结构的改善和提高进展缓慢。使用有机无机
复混肥是改善土壤地力的重要途径,对有机无机复混肥施用量的确定以及其对农田碳
排放的研究是有意义的。本研究将页岩、油渣、活性炭等固体废料与无机化肥配方制
成新型有机无机复混肥,于2009~2010 年,通过田间试验设置不同灌水与施肥水平,
研究了其对冬小麦水肥利用及农田固碳效应的影响。取得主要研究结果如下:
1.有机无机复混肥处理与常规施肥处理在维持田间土壤磷、钾养分方面无显著差
异,但其能显著提高农田土壤有机质含量。常规施肥下农田土壤有机质和碱解氮含量
均随灌水明显降低,而有机无机复混肥处理土壤有机质降低则不明显,甚至随着其施
用量的增大还会升高。高施用量有机无机复混肥处理下灌水增多更有利于土壤有机质
和碱解氮水平的提高。灌水对冬小麦氮肥偏生产力(NPEP)影响不大。在不超量施
用有机无机复混肥的条件下,有机无机复混肥处理的氮肥偏生产力高于常规施肥处
理,有机无机复混肥处理间的NPEP 随着施肥量的增大逐渐减小。
2. 各处理亩穗数与穗粒数差异不大,但是不同施肥处理的穗粒重与千粒重差异
较大:各灌水条件下有机无机复混肥处理的穗粒重和千粒重较常规施肥处理大,且有
机无机复混肥处理的穗粒重与千粒重随着施肥量的增大呈现先增大后减小的趋势,每
公顷施有机无机复混肥1350 kg 处理的穗粒重和千粒重达到最大。不灌水、灌一水、
灌两水每公顷施有机无机复混肥1350 kg 处理的千粒重分别比常规施肥处理高0.37g,
0.26g 与0.44g,高出23.13%,15.48%与27.67%。从以上结果可以看出,有机无机复
混肥主要是通过提高小麦穗粒重和千粒重来提高小麦产量。灌浆过程是影响小麦穗粒
重和千粒重的重要因素,有机无机复混肥处理与常规施肥处理的小麦穗粒重和千粒重上的结果与其灌浆过程的表现是一致的:小麦灌浆期越长、灌浆速率越高,产量就越
高。各有机无机复混肥处理较常规施肥增产均在10%~30%之间,且随着灌水量的增
大,有机无机复混肥最佳施肥量也随之增大:所有处理中,理论最大产量出现在灌一
水的有机无机复混肥1350 kg 处理中,为8894.11 kg.hm-2,此时对应的施肥水平为每
公顷施有机无机复混肥1350 kg 处理。在考虑产投比的前提下,不灌水、灌一水、灌
两水下经济最佳有机无机复混肥施肥量分别为656 kg.hm-2、920.13 kg.hm-2 与872.38
kg.hm-2。有机无机复混肥处理可明显提高小麦生产水分利用效率与降水利用效率,其
变化规律与产量变化基本一致。不灌水、灌一水、灌两水条件下,有机无机复混肥处
理较常规施肥处理每方水增产粮食分别为0.616kg、0.56kg、0.46kg,WUE 分别提高
29.3%、29.32%与27.54%,PUE 分别提高21.81%、18.79%、19.71%。
3.小麦拔节初期降雨较少,有机无机复混肥处理土壤剖面含水率下降幅度低于常
规施肥处理;在小麦灌浆期,有机无机复混肥处理土壤垂直含水率的峰、谷值均推迟
于常规施肥处理。各灌水下有机无机复混肥处理土壤耗水均小于常规施肥处理。灌水
是造成各处理土壤耗水不同的最关键原因,灌水量越大,土壤耗水量就越大。各灌水
下,不同施肥处理间土壤耗水差异较大,其中灌一水条件下不同施肥处理间土壤耗水
差异最大,有机无机复混肥1800 比常规施肥处理土壤耗水减少36.43mm,达10.02%;
不灌水条件下不同施肥处理间土壤耗水差异也较大,每公顷施有机无机复混1800 kg
比常规施肥处理土壤耗水减少27.47mm,达8.45%;灌两水条件下有机无机复混肥处
理与常规施肥处理土壤耗水差异显著,有机无机复混肥处理较常规施肥处理土壤耗水
减少19 mm ~ 31mm,平均减少5.95%,而不同有机无机复混肥施肥处理间土壤耗水
差异不明显。
4.小麦分蘖期,有机无机复混肥处理使小麦植株相对低矮,根相对粗短。这种趋
势随着肥料施用量的增大愈发明显;在灌浆期,中有机无机复混肥处理植株最为低矮,
而穗重及地上干物质量最大;中有机无机复混肥的小麦灌浆速率明显高于其余处理,
而各处理根冠比无明显规律。
5.常规施肥处理农田CO2 排放量小于有机无机复混肥处理;在冬小麦农田土壤呼
吸作用强烈的拔节及灌浆期,灌水均能显著提高农田土壤CO2 排放通量。在考虑作
物产量与农田固碳综合效应的前提下,若将产量作为主要判别因子,则每公顷施有机
无机复混肥1350 kg 处理为最优处理;若偏重考虑农田固碳,则每公顷施有机无机复
混肥1800 kg 处理最佳。
关键词:有机无机复混肥,土壤养分,水分利用效率,NEP

Other Abstract

Application of Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, herbicide and farm machinery
etc eliminated a lot of obstacles to make crop yields greatly raised. But progress of,
improving soil fertility and enhancing of soil structure is slow. Using the compound
fertilizer is the important way to improve soil fertility, study of application amount of
compound fertilizer and determining its farmland carbon emissions is meaningful. This
research compounded shale, diesel, active carbon and other solid waste materials and
inorganic fertilizer together and made a new kind of compound fertilizer (CF). Experiment
from 2009 to 2010 was conducted to study the effects of fertilization utilization and
farmland effect of carbon sequestration of soil amendment fertilizer on winter wheat. Get
the main research results are as follows:
1. There had no significant differences in maintaining the P and K nutrient of the soil
between compound fertilizer treatments and normal fertilizer (NF) treatment; compound
fertilizer treatments can improve soil organic matter content and consumed soil nitrogen.
Soil organic matter and alkali-hydro nitrogen content were reduced significantly with
irrigation under NF treatment, while compound fertilizer treatments were not obvious
reduced, even with the increase of compound fertilizer usage, the soil organic matter levels
rised. High compound fertilizer with more irrigation were advantageous to increasing soil
organic matter and alkali-hydro nitrogen level, the explanation for this phenomenon needs
to be further study. Irrigation had little impact on winter wheat nitrogen partial productivity
(NPEP). NPEP of compound fertilizer treatments were higher than NF treatments without
excessive use of compound fertilizer, NPEP decreased gradually with increased of the
compound fertilizer.
2. Ears per mu and grains per spike were not significant difference in different
irrigation and fertilization treatments, visible in wheat mu grain number per ear Numbers  and the impact is not big. But spike kernel weight and TKW were obvious in different
fertilizer treatments: spike kernel weight and TKW of compound fertilizer were higher
than NF treatments and raised steadily come before a slowly decrease with the increase of
compound fertilizer amount. Spike kernel weight and TKW of compound fertilizer 1350
was highest,the spike kernel weight and TKW were respectively 0.26 g ,0.37 g and 0.44 g
(23.13%,27.67%,35.55%)higher than NF under No irrigation. From the above results we
can see: compound fertilizer mainly by means of improving spike kernel weight and TKW
to improve wheat yield. Grouting process is a key factor to influence spike kernel weight
and TKW, performance of spike kernel weight and TKW and and grouting process was
consistent. With the longer term and higher grouting rate of wheat, the wheat yield was
higher. Yields increase of compound fertilizer treatments compare with NF was 10% ~
30%.As irrigation was improved, the optimum amount of compound fertilizer fertilization
was raised correspondingly; the maximum yield was 8894.11 kg/ha under the treatment of
irrigation at 60 mm in jointing stage and fertilized soil amendment fertilizer at 1350 kg/ha.
Based on output-input ratio, the optimum amount of compound fertilizer fertilization under
no irrigation, irrigation once, irrigation twice was respectively 656 kg/ ha、920.13 kg/ha
and 872.38 kg/ha. Compound fertilizer can obviously increase PUE and WUE of winter
wheat production, variation regulation of PUE, WUE and yields are basically similar. No
irrigation, irrigation once, irrigation twice, the wheat yield increase was 0.616 kg, 0.56 kg,
0.46 kg higher than NF treatment. WUE was respectively 29.3%, 29.32%, 27.54% higher
than NF treatments; PUE was respectively 21.81%, 18.79%, and 19.71% higher than NF
treatments.
3. At the beginning of jointing stage, soil water content under compound fertilizer
treatments raised steadily come before a slowly increase and presented the "V" type
distribution, not the "W" type distribution of NF treatments; While at the seed filling stage,
the peak and nadir of soil moisture content under compound fertilizer treatments were both
delayed than NF treatment. Water consume of compound fertilizer treatments are less than
NF treatment. Irrigation is the most important factor to influence the water consume, with
more irrigation, with more soil water consumption. Obvious differences between different
fertilizer treatments under each irrigation treatments: treatments of irrigation once were the
most significate difference of water consume among the fertilizer treatments. Water  consume of compound fertilizer 1800 with no irrigation was 27.47 mm less than NF
treatments, reducing rate was 8.45%. Average water consume of compound fertilizer
treatments with irrigation twice was 19~31 mm less than NF treatments, reducing rate was
5.95% and there had less difference among compound fertilizer fertilizer treatments.
4. At the tillering stage, plants under compound fertilizer treatments were low and
their roots were relatively thick and short, this trend was more obvious as fertilizer
application rates increased; but at the seed filling stage, plant height under treatment of
middle compound fertilizer was lowest, but the spike dry matter and dry weight of
above-ground-part were both heaviest, the difference of Wheat grouting rate was mainly
manifested that the middle compound fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than
other treatments. There was no significate difference of root-shoot ratio in all treatments.
5. Plot CO2 emission under normal fertilizer treatment was lower than soil amendment
fertilizer treatments; in jointing stage and seed filling stage which soil respiration of winter
wheat were intensively, irrigation at jointing stage could significantly improve soil CO2
emission flux. In consideration of crop yield and effect of farmland carbon sequestration
synthetically. If put the yield under the key factor, compound fertilizer 1350 treatment was
the optimal choice, while considered effect of farmland carbon sequestration more
important, the best selection was compound fertilizer 1800 treatment.
Keywords: Compound fertilizer; Soil nutrient; NPEP; WUE; NEP

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8891
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周立峰. 新型有机无机复混肥对冬小麦水肥利用及 农田固碳效应的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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