ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
神东煤田不同下垫面侵蚀产沙规律 及水动力参数特征
王 贞
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword神府东胜煤田 不同下垫面 径流 侵蚀产沙 水动力学参数
Abstract

煤矿在开发建设中,对地表的破坏形成了数量巨大的人为扰动地面、非硬化路面、
弃土弃渣堆积体等,是矿区水土流失的主要物质来源。神府东胜矿区生态环境脆弱,
加之气候条件的影响,在煤炭开采过程中水土流失极其严重,是国家级水土流失的重
点监督区。本文以神府东胜煤田开发建设中的原生地面、扰动地面、非硬化路面、弃
土弃渣体为主要研究对象,采用野外人工模拟降雨实验方法,对不同下垫面类型的产
流、产沙、水动力学参数特征以及弃渣体防护措施进行研究,为进一步揭示矿区水土
流失规律,探求新增水土流失模型以及人为水土流失防治途径提供了科学依据,具有
重要的科学意义和实际应用价值。主要得出以下结论:
(1)不同下垫面的径流率随降雨时间的延长呈先增大后趋于稳定波动的趋势,
弃土弃渣体的径流率会出现突然变大而后急剧减小的现象。不同下垫面的产流能力大
小顺序为:非硬化路面>弃土体>沙多石少弃渣体>沙少石多弃渣体>原生地面>扰动地
面>煤矸石。
(2)不同下垫面的径流含沙量和输沙速率均随着降雨强度的增大而增大,和降
雨强度均呈幂函数相关。随着降雨时间的延长,原生地面、扰动地面、非硬化路面的
含沙量在小坡度小雨强的情形下有逐渐增大的趋势,在大雨强大坡度条件下,呈先增
大后减小的趋势。弃土弃渣体较为特殊,整体呈现减小趋势,在某个时间内会出现含
沙量极大的现象,此时发生泥石流现象,致使水流的含水量极大,随后,含沙量急剧
减小。不同下垫面的产沙能力大小顺序为:弃土体>沙多石少弃渣体>沙少石多弃渣
体>非硬化路面>扰动地面>原生地面>煤矸石。
(3)不同下垫面在不同降雨强度和坡度条件下的流速、雷诺数、水深、水流剪
切力、水流功率均随着降雨强度的增大而增大,有良好的相关性,大都呈线性或者幂函数关系。
(4)土壤剥蚀率主要和降雨强度、流速、水深、雷诺数、水流剪切力、水流功
率的相关性显著,大都呈线性或者幂函数相关。弃土体和沙多石少弃渣体的土壤剥蚀
率受流速的影响不大。
(5)植草和鱼鳞坑处理均有减少径流的作用。2 种防护措施均可以对坡面起到
有效的固定作用,从而防止泥石流现象的发生。
关键词:神府东胜煤田;不同下垫面;径流;侵蚀产沙;水动力学参数

Other Abstract

Amount of the disturbed lands, unpaved roads, abandon soil, slag bodies and coal
refuses in the development of the coal mine were the main material sources to the loss of
soil and water. The shenfudongsheng coalfield was the national key surveillance area of the
soil and water erosion, because of its fragile ecological environment and severe climate
condition. This paper researched runoff, sediment yield and hydrodynamics of the original
lands, disturbed lands, unpaved roads and abandon soil and slag bodies, using the rainfall
simulation experiment, in the shenfudongsheng coalfield, as to seek the rules and the
models of the soil and water erosion, and provided some basic advises for the control
measures. Main conclusions showed as follow:
(1)there was a linear relationship between runoff rate and rainfall intensity. Runoff
rate of different underlying surface presented trend of increases first then fluctuation stable.
The orders of the runoff were: unpaved roads > abandon soil > slag bodies of more sand >
slag bodies of less sand > original lands > disturbed lands > coal refuse.
(2)Soil moisture content in the 1m soil layer of the original lands, disturbed lands and
unpaved roads increased with the depth increase before rainfall, which decreased with the
depth increase after rainfall. There was no different in the soil moisture content of below
40cm soil layer before and after rainfall, the order of which of 0-40cm soil layer were:
disturbed lands > original lands > unpaved roads.
(3)Sediment concentration and sand transport rate of runoff of the different underlying
surfaces increased with the rainfall intensity increase, both of which had a power function
relationship with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration of the original lands,
disturbed lands and unpaved roads all increased gradually with the rainfall time under the
condition of small gradient and little rainfall intensity, and presented a trend of increase  first and decrease after under the condition of big gradient and heave rainfall intensity. The
sediment concentration of the abandon soil and slag bodies presented a tend of decrease,
and became very large at some time, in which it occurred small landslides and debris flow,
and then decreased rapidly. The order of sediment yield of different underlying surfaces in
actual situation were: abandon soil > slag bodies of more sand > slag bodies of less sand
> unpaved roads > disturbed lands > original lands > coal refuse.
(4)Flow rate, Reynolds number, flow depth, stream shear force and stream power of
different underlying surfaces increased with rainfall intensity increase, all of which had
linear or power relationships with the rainfall intensity.
(5)Soil erosion rate had linear or power relationships with rainfall intensity, flow rate,
flow depth, stream shear force and stream power, which of abandon soil and slag bodies of
sand more was affected less by flow rate.
(6)The dispose of planting grass and digging hollow of fish scale both had the affect
of decreasing runoff, also can fasten the slope surface and prevent the small landslides
happens.
Key Words:shengfu-dongsheng coal field; different underlying surface; runoff; sediment
yield; hydrodynamics

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8890
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 贞. 神东煤田不同下垫面侵蚀产沙规律 及水动力参数特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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