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黄土丘陵半干旱区多年生柠条林平茬效应研究
李耀林
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土丘陵半干旱区 柠条 平茬 土壤水分
Abstract

黄土丘陵半干旱区多年生人工柠条林地发生土壤旱化,研究柠条林平茬对土壤水分的影响对于防治土壤旱化具有重要意义。本研究通过对柠条林地土壤性质,平茬后柠条林地连续5年土壤水分以及生长指标进行定位观测和分析,得出的主要结论如下:
1、随深度增加,林地土壤容重呈现先增加后降低趋势,土壤孔隙度、土壤持水能力呈现先减小后增加趋势。构成土壤的颗粒大部分为粉粒,砂粒次之,粘粒最少。
2、林冠截留量随降雨量的增大而增大,二者呈线性关系。地表径流量随降雨量增加呈现增加趋势。
柠条林地降雨补给量同降雨量显著正相关。降雨耗损量(林冠截留量和地表径流之和)占降雨量的百分比为降雨耗损率,林地降雨损耗率与其降雨前土壤表层(0—20 cm)含水量呈指数关系。平茬林地降雨补给率小于未平茬林地,降雨损耗率明显高于未平茬林地。
3、平茬后,林地降雨最大入渗深度减小,短时间内(本研究仅2个月左右)林地20—160 cm含水量增加,之后平茬林地土壤含水量与未平茬林地土壤含水量接近;丰水年和丰水年后的第一年,平茬林地含水量低于未平茬林地,0—400 cm土壤储水量比未平茬林地最多低45.9 mm。平茬后200—400 cm土层土壤水分有少量增加,但是0—200 cm土层土壤含水量损失更严重。平茬3年后,平茬对柠条林地土壤水分的影响减弱。
4、平茬后萌生柠条对水分的消耗量远小于未平茬柠条,平茬3年内,如遇干旱年,平茬柠条林土壤水分利用深度和相同时间土壤储水量降低值均低于未平茬林地。
5、柠条单枝生物量模型为:y=0.011×(D2H)1.008;柠条单丛生物量模型为:y=0.1228(D2H×BN)0.5525。平茬后萌生柠条生长迅速。平茬后的前四年株高生长最快,平茬后五年之内地径都生长迅速。柠条的生长受降雨量影响明显,每年7—8月,株高和地径生长速度最快。
关键词:黄土丘陵半干旱区;柠条;平茬;土壤水分

Other Abstract

Soil drying has been an environmental problem in perennial artificial Caragana shrub land in the semi-arid Loess Hilly region. Cutting management was expected to have an effect on improving soil moisture regulation and thus preventing the problem. In this study, the soil properties, soil moisture and Caragana growth of cutting land and control land of Caragana korshinskii Kom in the Shanghuang experimental station in northwestern China was measured and analyzed, the main results are as follows.
(1) With the increase of soil depth, soil bulk density firstly increase and then decrease, soil porosity, the water-holding capacities decrease at the first and increase afterwards. The soil was mainly constituted by silt, then sand, then clay.
(2) The canopy interception increased with precipitation, the relationship can be determined by equation: y=0.0782x+0.4126. The surface runoff increased with precipitation.
(3) The amounts of soil water recharge in both control and cut plots were positively related to precipitation. Rainfall loss rates through interception and runoff in control and cut plots were exponentially related to their surface soil moisture contents before the rain. After cutting, the recharge depth decreased, and soil moisture in 20-160 cm increased for a short period (about two months in this study). Then the soil moisture in cut plot was close to that in control plot. In rainy year and the year after rainy year, soil moisture in cut land was lower than control and the soil water  storage in 0—400 cm soil layer was up to 45.9 mm lower than that in control plot. Cutting recovered soil moisture in the 200—400 cm soil layer but the water loss in the upper layer of 0-200 cm was more significant. Three years later, the effect of cutting on soil moisture became weak.
(4) The water use depth and the decreased amount of water storage in dry months in cut land were lower than control. These suggest that cutting can reduce the water consumption of the Caragana shrub.
(5) The equation y=0.011×(D2H)1.008 can be used to calculate the biomass of single branch and the equation y=0.1228(D2H×BN)0.5525 can be used to calculate the biomass of single clump. After cutting, coppice grow fast, the height grew quickly until the fifth year after cutting, however, the basal diameter grew quickly during all the experiment period. The growth rate of Canagara was affected by precipitation. In July and August, Canagara grew most rapidly.
Key words: Semi-arid Loess Hilly region; Caragana korshinskii Kom; cutting; soil moisture;

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8886
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李耀林. 黄土丘陵半干旱区多年生柠条林平茬效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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