ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土高原天然草地生态系统土壤有机碳蓄积研究
刘 伟
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土高原 草地 有机碳 分布特征 影响因素 碳蓄积
Abstract

随着全球气候变化和陆地生态系统碳循环研究的发展,碳蓄积正成为草地生态
系统研究的热点。草地作为地球上分布最广的植被类型之一,对全球气候变化具有
一定的影响和响应。草地生态系统作为陆地生态系统的重要组成部分, 在陆地生态
系统碳循环过程中起着重要作用。而目前大多数草原生态系统有机碳的研究多基于
普查资料、遥感数据或模型估算,真正意义上的野外调查数据很是缺乏。
本研究以黄土高原4 种主要草地类型(森林草原、典型草原、高寒草甸草原、
荒漠草原)为研究对象,分析了不同草地类型土壤有机碳(SOC)和有机碳密度
(SOCD)的分布特征及其影响因素,初步估算了黄土高原中部天然草地土壤有机
碳蓄积量。结果表明:
(1)黄土高原天然草地土壤有机碳含量随土壤深度的增加而降低,其中0~20
cm 土壤有机碳含量与20~40、40~60、60~80、80~100 cm 有机碳含量差异显著;
且不同的草地类型,这种减少的幅度不同,高寒草甸草原的土壤有机碳含量减少幅
度最大,荒漠草原减幅最小。而土壤有机碳密度因草地类型不同,表现出不同的剖
面垂直变异性,其中典型草原和高寒草原土壤有机碳密度随土层深度的增加而减
小,森林草原土壤有机碳则呈现先减小后增加的趋势,荒漠草原有机碳密度空间变
异性最小,各土层间差异不显著。对于整个土层而言,不同草地类型间的土壤有机
碳密度变异程度也不同,典型草原变异系数最大,高寒草甸草原最小。
(2)4 种草地类型土壤有机碳含量分布规律:0~40 cm 土层:高寒草甸草原
>典型草原>森林草原>荒漠草原,40~100 cm 土层:高寒草甸草原>森林草原>
典型草原>荒漠草原;黄土高原上高寒草甸草原、森林草原、典型草原土壤有机碳
都集中分布在0~40 cm 土层,分别占0~100 cm 的71%、50%、46%,而荒漠草原
各层土壤有机碳含量分布较均匀。
(3)在研究区域内,土壤有机碳含量和密度与海拔呈显著正相关;0~40 cm
土壤有机碳含量与土壤含水量呈显著正相关,而0~60 cm 土壤有机碳密度与土壤
含水量显著正相关;有机碳含量和全氮有极显著的正相关性;有机碳含量和密度都与年均温呈极显著负相关。
(4)黄土高原中部有机碳密度分布很不均匀,由东向西呈现先增加后减少再增
加的变化趋势。4 种类型草原中,1 m 深土壤有机碳密度由大到小依次为高寒草甸草
原>典型草原>森林草原>荒漠草原,其值分别为18.30 kg·m-2、4.99 kg·m-2、4.69
kg·m-2 和1.50 kg·m-2。黄土高原中部天然草地总面积2.02×107 hm2,经克里格插值得
出0~1 m 深度土壤碳蓄积量为1.06 Pg C(1 Pg=1×1015g)。
关键词:黄土高原;草地;有机碳;分布特征;影响因素;碳蓄积

Other Abstract

With global climate change and the development of terrestrial ecosystem carbon
cycle research, scholars have paid much attention to carbon storage of grassland
ecosystems. Grassland as one types of the most widely distributed vegetation on earth
has some impact and response on global climate change. Grassland ecosystem, an
important component of terrestrial ecosystems, plays an important role in the process of
carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. At present most research about the organic
carbon in grassland ecosystems mostly based on census data, remote sensing data or
model estimates, while the experimental data is penurious.
Distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and organic carbon density(SOCD)
and their affecting factors in four different types of natural grasslands (forest steppe,
typical grassland, alpine meadow steppe and desert steppe) in the Loess Plateau were
analyzed and the soil organic carbon storage of the natural grassland in central Loess
Plateau were calculated. Results are as follows:
(1) Soil organic carbon content decrease with soil depth on Loess Plateau, it is
significantly higher in 0~20 cm than in 20~40 cm, 40~60 cm, 60~80 cm and 80~100 cm.
The changes are different in different type of grassland. The Alpine meadow steppe
decreases the fastest while the desert steppe decreases the slowest. The SOCD of typical
grassland and alpine meadow steppe decrease with soil depth; with depth, the SOCD of
forest steppe increasing at first and then decreasing and increase at last; the SOCD of the
desert steppe has the smallest variation with the depth. In the whole layer of 0~100 cm, the
coefficients of variation of soil organic carbon density are different in four types of
grassland. The coefficient of variation of SOCD in typical grassland is the largest while
that in the Alpine meadow steppe is the minimum.
(2) In the 0~40 cm soil layer, the distribution of organic carbon content in the four
types of grasslands tends to be in the order of Alpine meadow steppe>typical
grassland>forest steppe>desert steppe; while in the 40~100 cm soil layer, in the order of
Alpine meadow steppe>forest steppe>typical grassland>desert steppe. In the Alpine  meadow steppe, forest steppe and typical steppe of the Loess Plateau, soil organic carbon
is concentrated in the surface layer (0~40 cm), accounting for 71%, 50% and 46% of the
total in the profile (0~100 cm), while the distribution is more uniform in the desert steppe;
(3) In Loess Plateau, the SOC and SOCD is positively related to altitude; but
negatively related to annual mean temperature. In the 0~40 cm soil layer, SOC is positively
related to soil water content; in the 0~60 cm soil layer, SOCD is positively related to soil
water content.
(4) In the horizontal direction, the distribution of organic carbon density is very
uneven in the central Loess Plateau. From east to west, the SOCD increasing at first and
then decreasing and increase at last. The distribution of organic carbon density in
0~100cm soil layer in the four types of grassland tends to be in the order of Alpine
meadow steppe>typical grassland>forest steppe>desert steppe, and the value are 18.30
kg·m-2, 4.99 kg·m-2, 4.69 kg·m-2 and 1.50 kg·m-2. The total area of natural grassland in
central Loess Plateau is 2.02×107 hm2, and the soil carbon storage is 1.06 Pg C in 1 m
depth.
Key Words: Loess Plateau; Grassland; Organic carbon; Distribution; Influencing factors;
Carbon storage

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8884
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘 伟. 黄土高原天然草地生态系统土壤有机碳蓄积研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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