ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄瓜不同生长期适宜灌溉土壤水分指标试验研究
廖 凯
Subtype硕士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄瓜 生长期 土壤水分下限 土壤水分上限 产量 品质
Abstract

土壤水分状况是影响作物产量的一个主要因素,对于大田作物,灌溉是补给土壤
水分的重要措施之一。而对于设施农业而言,灌溉是农作物获得水分的唯一途径。本
文以黄瓜为供试作物,采用盆栽试验,模拟膜下滴灌条件,通过在其各生长阶段设置
不同的土壤水分上、下限处理,研究黄瓜各生长期的耗水特点和规律,以及不同土壤
水分上、下限处理对黄瓜生长指标、生理指标、产量、品质和水分利用效率的影响,
通过对黄瓜耗水规律及水分生产函数的分析,以期确定各生长时期适宜的土壤水分
上、下限,为日光温室条件下黄瓜的智能灌溉控制系统提供科学、可靠的灌溉技术参
数。根据研究结果得出以下主要结论:
1)不同生长期水分处理对黄瓜生长指标的影响结果表明:初花期开灌前的土壤
含水率(灌溉下限)可以适当的低一些,土壤含水率以田间持水量的55%为下限。对
于生长初期,适度的水分胁迫有利于促进黄瓜根系发育,扩大黄瓜根系对土壤水分的
利用范围,提高对土壤水分的利用效率,对后期的株高增长有一定程度的促进作用,
复水后株高的补偿效益较明显。在黄瓜各生长期内,适度的水分亏缺均有利于茎杆直
径的增长,而初瓜期较高土壤含水量有利于叶面积的增长,盛瓜期过低的土壤水分会
拟制黄瓜叶面积生长。
2)不同生长期水分处理对黄瓜生理指标的影响结果表明:在整个生长阶段内,
光合速率较强时,其蒸腾速率和气孔导度较大,气孔导度和蒸腾速率均与光合速率呈
现基本相同的变化规律。黄瓜叶片在初花期和盛瓜期各光合参数的日变化为单峰曲
线,并在12:00 时达到最大值。初瓜期各光合参数的日变化均为双峰曲线,并在12:00
时有明显的“午休”现象,两个峰值出现在10:00 和14:00,光合速率14:00 的峰值略大
于10:00 的峰值,但是气孔导度和蒸腾速率14:00 的峰值比10:00 的峰值大很多。初
花期和初瓜期较低的土壤水分下限处理比较有利于黄瓜初瓜期光合参数的提高,盛瓜
期过高或过低的土壤水分下限处理均会降低光合参数值,盛瓜期土壤水分保持在
75~90%田间持水量时可以提高光合参数值。
3)各生长阶段不同土壤水分下限处理的黄瓜品质变化趋势比较一致,各指标均随各时期设定的土壤水分下限的降低而增加,即适度控制水分供给而产生的水分亏缺
可以提高果实的品质。各处理的地上茎叶部干重、地下根系干重及根冠比均随着设定
的土壤水分下限的降低而增大。从株高与地下根系干重及根冠比的关系上看,在初花
期和初瓜期基本上呈现株高越大,地下根系干重及根冠比逐渐增大的规律,说明地上
部分与地下部分的生长具有较好的一致性。
4)在初花期保持55~90%田间持水量、初瓜期75~90%田间持水量、盛瓜期75~90%
田间持水量 (即处理A3),不但可以满足黄瓜全生长期的耗水需求,还可以获得最高
产量(0.834kg/株)和最大水分利用效率(39.36g/kg),同时达到高产和高效的目的。在整
个生长期内黄瓜耗水量呈先缓后急的增长趋势,这与黄瓜的生长发育对水分的需求规
律相吻合。各处理的耗水强度均表现为盛瓜期>初瓜期>初花期,且随着生长期的不
断延长,各处理的日均耗水量之间的差异越来越明显。
5)利用Jensen 模型对试验结果模拟的结果表明:黄瓜水分生产函数中产量对各
生长期水分的敏感指数为盛瓜期>初瓜期>初花期,分别为0.635、0.290、0.275。盛
瓜期水分敏感指数最大,说明此阶段如果土壤含水率偏低或土壤水分不足,将对最终
产量产生较大影响,将造成严重的减产损失。初花期敏感指数最小,说明初花期适度
的水分亏缺对后期的产量影响不大,在初花期允许短时间适度的水分亏缺。初瓜期是
黄瓜从营养生长向生殖生长过度的关键时期,黄瓜的需水量逐渐增加,适当的水分胁
迫对黄瓜最终的产量影响不是很大。
6)以90%田间持水量作为灌溉上限处理条件下,黄瓜植株不论生长指标、光合
参数指标、果实品质还是地上茎叶部干重、根干重和根冠比,均优于以田间持水量作
为灌溉上限的处理。以90%田间持水量作为灌溉上限处理的单株产量仅比田间持水量
灌溉上限处理的单株产量减少0.9%,但水分利用效率却提高了16.84%。所以90%田
间持水量为黄瓜较适宜的节水灌溉上限指标。
7)对于(春夏季)日光温室黄瓜,不同生长阶段开始灌溉的控制下限土壤含水
率分别为:初花期55%田间持水量、初瓜期75%田间持水量,盛瓜期75%田间持水
量。在整个生育期灌溉水量控制上限土壤含水率以田间持水量的90%为宜。
关键词:黄瓜;生长期;土壤水分下限;土壤水分上限;产量;品质;根冠比;
水分生产函数;水分利用效率

Other Abstract

Soil moisture status is a major factor influencing crop production, and the irrigation is
an important measure for the field crops soil moisture supply. Meanwhile for facility
agriculture, irrigation is the only way for crops to get water. In this paper, morphological
indexes, physiological indexes, yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency of cucumber
were studied under the different soil moisture treatments during different growth stages in
pot experiment by simulation of drip irrigation. Proper water moisture irrigation maximum
and minimum during different growth stages were determined through the analysis of
water consumption and the water production function of cucumber, which provided
scientific and reliable irrigation parameters for the intelligent irrigation control system of
cucumber in greenhouse. The conclusions are as follows:
1) The effect of different water treatments on morphological indexes of cucumber
during different growth stages showed that: The irrigation minimum during initial bloom
stage could be appropriately lower, 55% field water capacity was the suitable soil moisture.
Moderate water stress in initial bloom stage, which could promote root development and
expand the untilization range of soil moisture of cucumber roots, was of benefit to improve
soil water use efficiency and promote the plant height growth later to some extent. Plant
height compensation benefit was obvious after irrigation recovery. Moderate water deficit
during every growth stage was conducive to the growth of stem diameter, and the higher
soil moisture during early-fruit stage was favored for the growth of leaf area. while the
lower irrigation limits during mid-fruit stage could reduce the growth of leaf area.
2) The effect of different water treatments on physiological indexes of cucumber
during different growth stages showed that: during the whole growth stage, the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance increased with the increase of the
photosynthetic rate, which showed the same variation with photosynthetic rate. The diurnal
course of physiological indexes of cucumber displayed single peak in initial bloom stage
and mid-fruit stage, and got the maximum at 12:00, while the diurnal course of
physiological indexes of cucumber displayed in a double-peak pattern curve in early-fruit
stage, and showed obvious "midday depression " in 12:00. The double peaks of
physiological indexes appeared at 10:00 and 14:00 respectively, the peak value of
photosynthetic rate at 14:00 was slightly larger than that at 10:00, while the peak of
stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at 14:00 were much larger than the peak at
10:00. The lower irrigation minimum during initial bloom stage and early-fruit
stage favored the promotion of photosynthetic parameters of cucumber, while the higher or
the lower soil moisture during mid-fruit stage could reduce photosynthetic parameters,
75~90% field water capacity was the suitable soil moisture, which reached the maximum
of photosynthetic parameters.
3) The cucumber fruit quality under different irrigation limits treatments during
different growth stages showed the same variation. All the indexes increased with the
decreasing of the irrigation minimum during different growth stages. This meant that
moderate water deficit by controlling the water supply could improve the fruit quality. The
shoot biomass, root biomass and root biomass and shoot biomass ratio under different
treatments during different growth stages increased with the decreasing of the irrigation
minimum. From the relationship between plant height and root biomass, root
biomass/shoot biomass, the root biomass, root biomass/shoot biomass under different
treatments during initial bloom stage and early-fruit stage increased with the increasing of
plant height, indicating that the growth of aboveground and underground parts had the
same variation.
4) The treatment maintaining the soil moisture 55~90%, 75~90% and 75~90% field
water capacity at initial bloom stage, early-fruit stage and mid-fruit stage respectively
(Treatment A3) could not only meet the needs of water consumption in the whole growth
period of cucumber but also get the best yield and water use efficiency, and then achieve
the dual objectives of high yield and high efficiency at the same time. The cucumber water
consumption throughout the whole growth period increased flatly at first then steeply, The amounts of water consumption at initial bloom stage was lower than that at early-fruit
stage, and the highest water consumption amount was at mid-fruit stage. And the difference
among the daily water consumption under the different water treatments were more and
more apparent with the extending of the growth period.
5) Water sensitivity indices calculated by the Jensen model using Genetic Algorithm
went down successively from mid-fruit stage, early-fruit stage to initial bloom stage, and
the water sensitivity indices were 0.635, 0.290, 0.275, respectively. The water sensitivity
indices at mid-fruit stage was the highest, which meant that if soil moisture during this
growth stage was lower or soil water was deficit, it would have a great impact on the final
yield. The water sensitivity indices at initial bloom stage was the smallest, indicating that
the moderate water deficit during this growth stage had little effect on the later yield, and
appropriate water deficit was allowed in a short time at initial bloom stage. The early-fruit
stage was the crucial period from the vegetative growth to reproductive growth of
cucumber, water requirement was increasing, the appropriate water stress had no great
impact on the final yield of cucumber.
6) The morphological indexes, physiological indexes, fruit quality, water use
efficiency, shoot biomass, the dry root weight and root-top ratio under treating 90% field
water capacity as soil water irrigation maximum were all better than that under 100% field
water capacity treatment. Although the yield of per-plant under treating 90% field water
capacity as soil water irrigation maximum decreased by 0.9% compared with that under
100%, the water use efficiency increased by 16.84%. So the treatment of 90% field water
capacity as soil water irrigation maximum was more reasonable than other treatments.
7) For the (spring and summer) cucumber in greenhouse, the irrigation minimum
during initial bloom stage, early-fruit stage and mid-fruit stage were 55%, 75% and 75%
field water capacity respectively. The appropriate soil water irrigation maximum in the
whole growth should be 90% field water capacity.
Key words: Cucumber; growth stages; irrigation minimum; soil water irrigation
maximum; yield; fruit quality; root-top ratio; water production function;
water use efficiency

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8880
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
廖 凯. 黄瓜不同生长期适宜灌溉土壤水分指标试验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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