ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
关中平原高速公路扰动土壤植被恢复研究
刘爱霞
Subtype博士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword关中平原 高速公路边坡 水稳性团聚体 土壤养分 植被恢复 群落多样性
Abstract

随着公路建设的蓬勃发展,尤其是高速公路的建设,大大促进了区域经济的迅速
发展,但同时也带来了不容忽视的沿线生态环境的破坏。但公路边坡植被恢复理论的
研究和实践严重滞后于公路的建设,极大地制约了公路边坡植被恢复的进程。而以往
的研究重点及热点也不在此,缺少公路运营后期植被恢复的研究。边坡植被恢复之于
高速公路类扰动土地项目显得尤为重要。
本文采用野外调查和室内分析相结合的办法,应用空间代替时间的方法,选取不
同植被恢复年限(1,3,6,9,16,17,19a)、不同坡向的关中平原高速公路路堤
边坡、路堑边坡、立交区三种类型各14,5,6 个样地为研究对象,并设置40 a 路堤
边坡样地为对照,详细调查了上述样地的植物资源,分析了不同恢复年限下的土壤理
化性质、植被组成及多样性特征,并给出适合本区的人工植被,以及限制本区植被恢
复的因子,初步得出以下结论:
(1) 三种样地的土壤理化性质随土层发生变化,表层(0-10 cm)结构、肥力优于亚
表层(10-20 cm)。通过与黄土高原养分分级表对比,路堤边坡土壤肥力处于中高、高
水平,与对照相比,在17 a 达到峰值;立交区土壤肥力处于较高水平;除挂网喷播
层肥力较高,路堑边坡土壤肥力处于中低、低水平,且明显低于路堤边坡及立交区肥
力。本区公路边坡植被恢复重建的关键是路堑边坡。
水稳性团聚体分形维数与有机质、全氮等相关性显著,说明其可以表征土壤肥力
的高低;还与其他土壤理化性质相关性明显,证明其可应用到公路类扰动土壤的研究。
(2) 三种样地共计出现植物98 种,其中人工物种11 种,自然物种92 种。通过
分析人工物种的各个生态学指标,得出红花酢浆草、白车轴草并不适合种植在缺乏人
为管护的关中平原公路边坡,相反地,绣球小冠花、结缕草、紫花苜蓿则是优良的边
坡恢复物种。
(3) 三种样地出现的92 种自然物种,主要以禾本科、菊科、豆科、蔷薇科为主。
通过分析其定居时间、数量及生活型随时间的变化,得出扰动土壤植被恢复演替的趋
势:一年生草本→一年生或越年生草本→多年生草本→多年生草本小灌木、小乔木。
(4) 分析三种样地群落内的多样性(α 多样性),结果显示路堤边坡群落分别在6a,17 a 左右达到峰值,且第二次峰值高于第一次峰值;群落间的多样性(β 多样性)
分析显示物种的增减始终是沿着自然演替的方向;多样性差异大的群落往往出现在演
替后期。
(5) 通过分析群落内的多样性指数与土壤、时间等因素的关系,结果显示:时间、
有机质、全氮、无机氮是影响扰动土壤植被恢复主要因子。同时人为扰动因素是一个
不可避免的具有双重影响的因素。
关键词:关中平原;高速公路边坡;水稳性团聚体;土壤养分;植被恢复;
群落多样性

Other Abstract

With the booming development of road construction, especially the freeway’s
construction is greatly contributed to the rapid development of regional economy. However,
it also brings environmental degradation which could not be ignored. Otherwise the theory
of road slope vegetation restoration reseach and practice lagged seriously behind the road
construction, and restricted the slope revegetation. Also, the previous studies lack of
vegetation recovery during the operating road did not focus it. Thus, to the disturbed land
projects, the slope vegetation restoration can be particularly important.
In this paper, by the way of combining field investigation and laboratory analysis
methods, we applied the method of space instead of time and chose the research object:
freeway embankment slope, cutting slope, overpass area. Corresponding the above, 14, 5, 6
plots were selected respectively, which was based on the different vegetation restoration
periods and different aspect, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, 17, 19 a in Guanzhong plain. And we
set 2 control plots (40 a) in embankment slopes. Meanwhile, we investigated the plant
resources of the 25 plots in detail, analyzed soil physical and chemical properties,
vegetation composition and diversity under the different recovery periods, and obtained the
artificial vegetation that were fit for the study area. Also, the limiting factors of
revegetation were given. The results obtained were described as follows:
(1) Soil chemical and physical properties of 3 kinds of plots changed with the soil
layer, and the surface (0-10 cm) structure, fertility were better than the subsurface (10-20
cm). By contrast with the Loess plateau nutrient classification, the soil nutrient of
embankment slope kept at the higher level. Contrast with the control plot, soil fertility of
embankment slope peaked at the 17th year. The soil fertility of overpass area also was at a
high level. But that of cutting slopes showed low level. Then, the key of plant restoration
in the study area was the cutting slope.
Fractal dimension of water stable aggregates was significantly negatively correlated  with organic matter, total nitrogen. Thus it could be applied to characterize the level of soil
fertility. It took obvious correlation with other soil chemical and physical properties also,
which showed that it could be used in the disturbed soil, just like the road project.
(2) 98 species appeared in the 3 kinds of plots, including 11 artificial species and 92
natural species. By analyzing the various ecological indicators of artificial vegetation, the
results showed that Oxalis corymbosa DC. and Trifolium repens L. these two plants were
not suitable for planting in the freeway slopes which were absent of human management
and protection in Guanzhong plain. On the contrary, Coronilla varia L., Zoysia japonica
Steud. and Medicago sativa L. were proved to be excellent artificial species for restoration
in the road slopes.
(3) The 92 natural species were mainly made up of gramineae, compositae,
leguminosae and rosaceae. And through the analysis that the natural plants’ settlement time,
the quantity and type of life changed over time came to the trend of vegetation succession:
annual herb→annual or perennial herb→perennial herbage→perennial herbage and small
shrub community.
(4) The results of analyzing the diversity within community(α-diversity) indicated that
the diversity of embankment slope communities reached the peak at 6 a,17 a respectively.
In addition, the second was higher than the first. The results of diversity among
communities demonstrated that species change was always along the direction of natural
succession and communities with big differences were often in the late stage of succession.
(5) By analyzing the relationship between the α-diversity with factors such as soil,
time, the results showed that it was the time, organic matter, total nitrogen, inorganic
nitrogen which were the factors that affected the vegetation recovery in the disturbed soil.
Furthermore, the human factor was an unavoidable factor that had dual effects.
Key Words:Guanzhong plain; Freeway slope; Water soil aggregate; Soil nutrient;
Revegetation;Community diversity

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8879
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘爱霞. 关中平原高速公路扰动土壤植被恢复研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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