ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
地表覆盖及保水剂与PAM对河套灌区土壤水热盐和番茄生长的影响
耿桂俊
Subtype博士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword河套灌区 地面覆盖 保水剂 Pam 番茄
Abstract

河套灌区灌溉水资源不足、土壤次生盐渍化等严重抑制了该区农业的持续、健康发展。如何合理、节约灌溉水资源,减少盐渍化发生是河套灌区农业发展面临的首要任务。本文针对河套灌区节水灌溉现状,以地表覆盖、保水剂及PAM的施用量和施用方法为研究对象,通过对土壤水分、温度、盐分及番茄生长的监测研究,取得了以下结果:
1. 地膜覆盖仍是河套灌区的主要覆盖方式
番茄播种时地膜覆盖,在番茄生育前期提高了0-20 cm土壤温度,而秸秆覆盖降低了0-20 cm土壤温度,且地膜+秸秆覆盖也降低了土壤温度。地膜覆盖、地膜+秸秆覆盖、秸秆覆盖在番茄生育前期均可提高0-50 cm土层的土壤水分,其中地膜覆盖效果最好。地膜覆盖番茄产量提高了222.61%。地膜+秸秆覆盖提高了17.04%,而秸秆覆盖略低于对照。河套灌区番茄播种时应以地膜覆盖为主,不宜采用秸秆覆盖。
2. 提出保水剂、PAM的适宜施用量
在河套灌区番茄生产中,不同施用量的PAM、保水剂和PAM+保水剂均可显著提高土壤水分,抑制土壤盐分表聚,提高番茄成活率、光合速率、产量和水分利用效率,其中保水剂最佳施用量为45.0 kg/hm2,PAM为37.5 kg/hm2,而PAM+保水剂没有明显的最佳施用量。相同施用量相比,保水剂效果较好,PAM次之,PAM+保水剂较差。河套灌区番茄生产中应以保水剂为主。
3. 提出保水剂、PAM的适宜施用方式
沟施、混施、撒施、穴施保水剂、PAM和PAM+保水剂均可减少土壤蒸发,有效抑制土壤盐分表聚,显著提高番茄移栽成活率,促进番茄生长。保水剂沟施的生物量、产量和水分利用效率分别较对照提高了76.54%、37.13%和51.5%,PAM撒施提高了56.60%、25.75%和30.3%,沟施PAM+保水剂分别较对照提高了58.12%、25.75%和32.5%。河套灌区番茄生产中应用保水剂应以沟施为主,PAM应以撒施为主。 河套灌区土壤盐渍化严重,番茄生长期短,番茄生产中应以地膜覆盖为主。保水剂的合理施用量为45.0 kg/hm2,PAM为37.5 kg/hm2,合理施用方法保水剂为沟施,PAM为撒施。 关键词: 河套灌区;地面覆盖;保水剂;PAM;番茄

Other Abstract

Lacking of irrigation water, serious soil secondary salinity, the agriculture had been inhibited to sustained and healthy development in Hetao Irrigation Area. How to reasonable using and saving irrigation water, reduce the occurrence of stalinization were the primary task to agriculture development in Hetao Irrigation Area. This paper was aimed at the status of water-saving irrigation in Hetao Irrigation Area, took soil surface mulching, application rate and application methods of PAM and super absorbent in Hetao Irrigation Area as study objects, monitored the soil moisture, soil temperature, soil salinity and tomato growth, and had the following results: 1. Plastic film mulching was still the main mulching methods in Hetao Irrigation Area Plastic film mulching increased soil temperature in 0-20cm soil layer in the early stage of tomato growth when sowing tomato, but corn straw mulching and film with corn straw mulching decreased soil temperature in 0-20cm soil layer. All of plastic film mulching, corn straw mulching and film with corn straw mulching increased soil moisture in 0-50 cm soil layer in the early stage of tomato growth, while the plastic film mulching was the best among them. The yield of tomato with plastic film mulching and plastic film with corn straw mulching were increased by 222.61% and 17.04% against the control, while corn straw mulching had slightly lower yields than the control. Plastic film mulching was suitable for tomato production in sowing time, but the corn straw mulching was unsuitable in Hetao Irrigation Area. 2. Presenting the suitable application rate of super absorbent and PAM
All application rates of PAM, super absorbent and PAM+super absorbent significantly increased soil moisture, inhibited surface soil salt accumulation,  increased the survival rate of seedling, photosynthetic rate, yields and water use efficiency of tomato in Hetao Irrigation Area. The most suitable application rate of super absorbent was 45.0 kg/hm2, PAM was 37.5 kg/hm2, PAM+super absorbent had no significantly most suitable application rate. At same application rate, the effect of super absorbent was better, PAM was the second, PAM+super absorbent was poor. Super absorbent should be actively promoted in tomato production in Hetao Irrigation Area. 3. Presenting the suitable application methods of super absorbent and PAM All treatments of super absorbent, PAM, and PAM+super absorbent with the application methods of furrowing, mixing, broadcasting and holing had reduced soil evaporation, inhibited surface soil salt accumulation effectively, improved the survival rate of tomato significantly, promoted the tomato growth. Furrowing super absorbent respectively increased tomato biomass, yields and water use efficiency by 76.54%, 37.13% and 51.5% compared with the control. Broadcasting PAM respectively increased 56.60%, 25.75% and 30.3%. Furrowing PAM+super absorbent respectively increased 58.12%, 25.75% and 32.5% against the control. The main application method of super absorbent should be furrowing, while PAM should be broadcasting in Hetao Irrigation Area The phenomenon of soil salinization was serious in Hetao Irrigation Area, and the stage of tomato growth was short, plastic film mulching should be the main mulching methods in tomato production. The suitable application rate of super absorbent was 45.0 kg/hm2, while PAM was 37.5 kg/hm2, and the suitable application methods of super absorbent was furrowing, while PAM was broadcasting. Key words: Hetao Irrigation Area; Soil surface mulching; Super absorbent; PAM; Tomato

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8878
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
耿桂俊. 地表覆盖及保水剂与PAM对河套灌区土壤水热盐和番茄生长的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
地表覆盖及保水剂与PAM对河套灌区土壤水(2075KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[耿桂俊]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[耿桂俊]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[耿桂俊]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.